On the eve of one internal strife to the interpretation of the First general chronicle of Spain
On the eve of one internal strife to the interpretation of the
First general chronicle of Spain
by Synthia M. Schelmerdine
University of Texas at Austin, USA
Article attempts to emphasize the importance of taking into account the formal characteristics of the manuscripts in the process of analyzing the content of medieval chronicles. object of analysis - Ch. 1025 "First General Chronicle" contains zhaschey-story about the beginning of strife Castilian nobility, which has become a consequence of accession to the throne of a minor king of Castile and Toledo Enrique I (1214-1217).
KeywordsMedieval chronicles, medieval manuscripts, Castile and Leon, Alfonso X, "History of Spain" Enrique I, feudalism, rebellions nobility, private wars, the Reconquista.
The infancy of a medieval king - the motive is almost traditional for the begining of strife. The weakness of the feudal state, the imperfection of the principles of the organization of power,
It is largely a set of public-legal institutions, the lack of the most established in the society the idea of a strong central govrnment - all these factors, the benefit-priyatstvovavshie violation weak support systems VNU-friction world are well known and described in detail the literature1.
The foregoing, however, does not mean that it is always and everywhere the action time-Wiwa on a single scenario. And here in the first place there is a genre of micro-history, which allows closer look at each individual case, to assess local conditions and nuances, as well as,
that is by no means superfluous, to understand how the reference to these conditions and the nuances expressed themselves "standard" feudal institutions. In this particular case it is particularly important to pre-stavlyaetsya the fact that too often the story content chro-antimony can not be adequately understood without taking into account external characterized-teristics of the manuscript, the story concludes. This is what will be discussed in this article.
Its base - the analysis of characteristics of external code-zhaschego contains a chapter of "first general chronicle". Chronicle - one of the surviving fragments of the grand plan of creation "History of Spain", the initiator of which was the famous king of Castile and Leon Alfonso X the Wise2. Brilliant on-razovanny and ambitious, he was met by researchers-some nickname "Emperor culture" and its cultural policy is not without reason, is called in the literature "renaissance of the XIII century."3. One of the wealthiest monarchs of his time, he sought to make provincial of Castile-León mo-Narkhov one of the centers of contemporary Europe and many succeeded. Cultural projects "wise king" is-were part of a political project, and fully concerned historiography.
From "historiographical workshop"4 Alfonso X came two outstanding monument - "General History» (General Estoria) and the unfinished "The history of Spain» (Estoria de Espanna), the most integral fragment of which was the "first general of chronic-ka", which covers events from the time of Moses to the death of his father " Emperor culture, "King Fernando III the Holy, in 1252 The principal novelty of these texts is that they are not written in Latin, but in colloquial Castilian5That was not only elevate Castile, but by extension-tion the audience to create entirely new opportunities for pro-pagandy6.
About that, how important was this goal, it testifies not to the content of the roofing-chronicles, but also the appearance of the text containing the codes closest in time to the period of creation of NADI-Sania text of the monument. These two manuscripts, and they are both in infusion-present time is stored in the Royal Library of El Escorial, one of the most important repositories of Spanish medieval manu-scripts7. The full text of the monument to reflect the two codes - YI-28, XI-49, The contents of which continues to one another10. The first of these is traditionally dated to the XIII century, and the second -. XIV in, although oche
it is clear that both codes were created at the same time, what a witness-exist and writing, and character design of both manuscripts. Apparently, both codes were created almost simultaneously, although WTO swarm obviously later than the first.
The design of the first of two codes (YI-2) a post-sequence of evidence of the desire of the authors of the text to create a luxurious manuscript. However, they were able to do relatively little: in addition to the carefully executed colored initials
Code contains only six thumbnailseleven; although it was initially planned to create them much more, as evidenced by spe-cial left their place on almost every page; according to the signatures, the majority of these miniatures was to portray the "portraits" of the kings, referred to in the text. Pref-Laga is also a special way to issue lists of the names of heads of each; make it possible only to a minimal degree; talking about it fol. 12r - 13v, where the head of the list is completed fugitive Gothic italics. Fol. 14r and fols. 132v - 133v generally remained unfilled; clear, however, that they left specifically for table of contents.
There is even less able to do for the decoration of the Code XI-4, which was conceived no less luxurious. There remained only one thumbnail (showing the king with a sword and his arrest)12; on a number of sheets, as in the first code, saving space13;
Some cases, there are signatures that allow to judge that going to be represented in the appropriate place14. As for the pages dedicated to the luxurious tables of contents, they have remained unfilled15.
It should be noted that other codes of the same period, containing conductive-chronicled, look much more modest. They do not have thumbnails and colored initials and painted a much less solemn letter. This applies to both eskorialskih manuscripts16And manu-scripts of the other major Spanish storage medium of ancient manuscripts - the National Library in Madrid (of which only one manuscript I am interested in the monument-dati ruetsya XIV century .; the rest belong to the XV century or more later time17). Even more significant, however, is the fact that none of these codes does not contain the full text of "First General Chronicle". It seems that in this case the form
fully in harmony with the content, which is, I think, with the passage of time it seems to be less relevant than in the mo-ment creation.
The foregoing makes particularly attentive to ana-lease eskorialskogo Code XI-4, which is, in fact, contain INH-Ch. 1025 her translation is attached to this article. Established if not at the time of writing of the text (which is unlikely), then directly follow him stormy reign of Sancho IV (1282 / 84-1295), the son of the "wise king", marked by turmoil and strife, this manuscript, which registration as and left unfinished, it became as it were the last of the-luster brilliant epoch of Alfonso X, and its external form only emphasizes the relevance of the content. From this point of view, the condemnation from the pages of the manuscript quarrels Castilian nobility the minority of Henry I (1214-1217), eleven King of Castile and Toledo, whose reign, albeit OF SHORT-ing (the child's life took a random and absurd death) must have sounded particularly weighty and by virtue of the merits of CCA, the God of attention.
The first general CHRONICLE OF SPAIN 1025. To learn how to King Don Enrique was handed over to the custody of Count Don Alvaro
As already mentioned, departed this world a noble Don Al-Fons18, King of Castile, and they buried him, and the story etsya With reference to the story of the generation of kings, who ruled after him, and
First of all - of King Don Enrique, his son, who was the first who came to power after him. And they say: when the glorious King Don Alfonso was buried, Toledo al-hiepiskop and Primate and the bishops, who were there, and the magician-Nata Castile took the Infante Dona Enrike, who was still a child, but the first-born and heir of King Don Alfonso and which took over the power of the king on the right and on the NIJ-born, and the singing of the clergy present "Te Deum laudamus" King raised his arms and raised him to the throne; eleven years from his birth when Don King Alfon-by died in the year AD one thousand two hundred fifty-second19And on-chal rule King Don Enrique. And by the time of his reign made thus: the King Don Enrique first - and it was such as in Castile or earlier, or later has not been known to us the king, who bore that name - began to rule year AD one thousand two hundred fifty-third20. After that,
After twenty-five days after the death of Don Alfonso and the same number from the beginning of the reign of King Dona Enrike, died the Queen Dona Leonor 21, Wife of the glorious King Don Alfonso and the mother of the King Dona Enrike ... And as the king Don Enrique seemed all too young to manage Sovereign stvom and keep it in the hands of a noble Queen Dona Beren-Gela22His sister, attended it and took the trouble to preserve the kingdom for his brother; and she kept it in a way that for all time of its custody all - both poor and rich, both cus Rica and lay people - were not harmed in their great estates Islands; So it was during the time of King Don Alfonso, her father, until the moment when the excitement caused disagreement magnates and Nena Vista. And there were then three graphs in Castile - Count Don Fernand-up, Count Don Alvaro23 and Count Don Gonsalvo24Sons of the above-mention of Count Don Nuño25. And they began to fight for the custody of a minor king: because if they got it, they could take revenge, spout all the hostility that have accumulated in their hearts to those who wish them evil; just as their father did in the days of childhood Dona Al-Fons, the father of the reigning king Dona Enrike. And they are attracted to this case some of the people who trust the queen Dona berengelite in order to ward of the King Don Enrique moved hand graph. Among them was a knight of Palencia called Lorenzo Garcia, who also took part in this by adopting the following obligations: this knight was entrusted the protection of a minor king his sister, the Queen Dona berengelite. And this rytsa Ryu Count Don Alvaro promised to pass in succession Vlad of town Tablada26Located in Serrato27If he will advise a minor king Don Enrique go to the custody of the said Count Don Alvaro. But I realized it is a wise koro-left Dona berengelite, who knew all the unrest, koto-rye only can happen in this world. And so arranged in otno-shenii Queen Dona berengelite this knight Lorenzo Garcia and his other comrades who were involved in the same case, that they are forced to do it in their own way; and as she saw that they were acting sincerely and that they are good people, she co-reads yield to them voluntarily, though not wholeheartedly. And yet, for fear of obscene things that may happen later, she was ordered to report to Count Don Alvaro and Dru-SHM Castilian magnates and made them swear that from now on, without consulting her, they will not take no for yourself or give land ownership to anyone else, nor fight with any of the rulers of neighboring countries nor to impose Pla tezhey on any whatsoever part of the kingdom; and in this Poquelin, we were all as one, and brought homage to Queen Dona berengelite,
They sealed it, putting their hands into the hands of the Archbishop Don Ro-Drigo Toledo; so if they violate these bonded homage and this oath, or will not act in accordance with them, then for it to be considered traitors. However, the Queen Dona berengelite who consider themselves offended and aggrieved immoderate-ness knights and magnates angry, afraid that the new guardians of the kingdom will outrage. So she gave the Count Don Alvaro custody of the minor king, take care that he did well in the soot-sponding with these arrangements. A graph of Don Alvaro, along with Gonsalvo Ruiz28 and his brothers29That are consistent with this were-and kept his side, left Burgos with the boy as soon as he was transferred to his powerthirty; and in the kingdom Earl began to repair the discord, and to cast Hidalgo31And humiliate know and burden of dues and obligations of the rich men of the people, and monasteries, and the diocese, and took a third of the parish churches32Intended for the construction and payment for work, and took away the church in the royal domain33And did what he wanted with them. Was there then Don Rodrigo, Dean of Toledo co-boron, while keeping these payments from the Archbishop of Toledo, osprey; He excommunicated the Count Don Alvaro, and forced him to return assigned in churches and swore that henceforth he did-that they did not take. And the Count Don Alvaro began to oppress the "good people"34Who were free from taxes for good privileges received from the royal churches, and the churches they were given to kings, placing the burden on these people and the hardships, so that these privileges to them exactly meant nothing; and the extent of its powers in this matter also intervened35 Dean of Toledo Don Rodrigo.
1.See., Eg .: Ganshof FL Feudalism. NY; Hagerstown; San Francisco; L., 1964. P. 117- 120; Rodón Binué E. El lenguaje técnico del feudalismo en el siglo XI en Cataluña (Contribución al estudio del latín medieval). Barcelona, 1957. P. 141-142; garcía de
2.Valdeavellano L. Las instituciones feudales en España // García de Valdeavellano L.
3.El feudalismo hispánico. Barcelona, 2000. P. 106-128; and etc.
4.The most complete of the existing biographies of Alfonso X, see. Eg .: González
5.Jiménez M. Alfonso X el Sabio. Barcelona, 2004. See also:. Alfonso X y su época. El siglo de Rey Sabio / Coord. por Miguel Rodríguez Llopis. Barcelona, 2001.
6.See, eg .: Emperor of Culture:. Alfonso X the Learned of Castile and his Thirteenth Century Renaissance / Ed. by R. Burns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.
7.On "historiographical workshop" X Alfonso see, for example. Fernández-Ordóñez I. El taller historiográfico alfonsí. La "Estoria de España" y la "General Estoria" en el marco de las obras promovidas por Alfonso el Sabio // El Scriptorium alfonsí: de los "Libros de Astrología" a las "Cantigas de Santa María". Madrid, 1999; Idem. Las 'Estorias' de Alfonso el Sabio. Madrid, 1992; Idem. El taller de las "Estorias" // Alfonso X el Sabio y las Crónicas de España / Ed. por I. Fernández-Ordóñez. Valladolid, 2001. P. 61-82; etc.. See also: Dyer NJ Alfonsine Historiography: The Literary Narrative // Emperor of Culture. P. 141-158; Martin G. Los intelectuales y la Corona: la obra histórica y literaria // Alfonso X y su época. P. 259-285.
8.On general sense Castillian fact assertion language as literary th see. Eg .: Procter ES The Castilian Chancelery during the Reign of Alfonso X (1252-1284) // Oxford Essays in Medieval History presented to HE Salter. Oxford, 1934. P. 104-121; Kasten L. Alfonso el Sabio and the Thirteenth-Century Spanish Langage // Emperor of Culture. P. 33-45; Fernández Ordoñez I. Las lenguas del rey: de latín a las lenguas vernáculas en las cancillerías regias de la Península Ibérica // La construcción medieval de la memoria regia / Ed. por P. Martínez Sopena, A. Rodríguez López. Valencia, 2011. P. 323-361.
9.On the importance of the fact of the transition of the medieval Western historiography from Latin into the vernacular first drew the attention of the US is-sledovatelnitsa G. Spaygel (See: Spiegel GM Romancing the Past: The Rise of Vernacular Prose Historiography in Thirteenth Century France Berkeley; Los An-geles. , 1993. Just in relation to the historiography of the epoch-Alfon with X, see eg .: Fernández-Ordoñez I. Variación ideológica del modelo historiográfico alfonsí en el siglo XIII:. las versiones de la "Estoria de España" // La história alfonsí : el modelo y sus destinos (siglos XIII-XV) / Ed por G. Martin Madrid, 2000. P. 41-74...
10.General information about the manuscript tradition of the "First General Chronicle" See. Eg .: Catalan D. De Alfonso X al conde de Barcelos. Cuarto estudios sobre el nacimiento de la historigrafía romance en Castilla y Portugal. Madrid, 1962.
11.Real Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial (hereinafter - RBME). Cod. YI-2. RBME. Cod. X-1-4.
12.YI-Contents 2 brought to reign first Asturias King Pelayo; XI-4 begins with the continuation of the story about the reign of Pelayo and-Euclidean-ditsya to the death of Fernando III.
13.RBME. YI-2. fols. 1v (the king's image and the court), 3r (image Noah Islands ark), 4r (the image of Hercules, holding in both hands two lions), 4v (the lock icon, and above it - a statue of Hercules), 5r (portico image with the inscription " Aquí será pobla la: grant: cibdat: "(« there will be more densely populated than the first-born »)), 7v (the king's image in the cave of dragon slaying, made in the style of Drew by God, and it is possible - and with the other hand).
14.RBME. Cod. X-1-4. fol. 1v.
15.Ibid. fols. 27r, 30v, 43v, 44r, 47v, 49v, 50v, 64r, 78r, 80r, 92v, 102r, 114r, and others.
16.For example, on fol.27r sheet, according to the sign, intended to portray koro la Ordoño I.
17.Ibid. fols. 199r, 199v, 315r, 315v.
18.RBME: cod. XI-7 (XIV in.) And XI-11 and Z-III-3 (XV c.); none of them does not contain the full text.
19.By the XIV century. refers manuscript BNM.Mss.579; it is written in italics and has a gothic color initials, but do not miniatures; rest medieval manuscript BBC chronicle date from the XV century. (See.: BNM Mss 643, 1343, 1298, 13002, 10134 <3> (the only miniature in the beginning of the text -... Fol 1r), 645, 1347, 1526.
20.Alfonso VIII (1155-1214).
23.Leonor (Eleanor) Plantagenet (1160-1214) - the daughter of the English King Henry II Plantagenet ha (1154-1189) and Eleanor of Aquitaine; wife of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Queen of Castile from 1170
24.Berengelite (1180-1246 approx.) - the daughter of the King of Castile and Toledo Alfonso VIII and Queen Leonor Plantagenet, wife of King of Leon Alfonso IX (1188- 1230).
25.Alvaro Núñez De Lara (1170-1218 approx.) - a graph representative of a noble clan of Lara.
26.Gonsalvo Núñez De Lara (- after 1225), Senor belorado (in the modern province of Burgos) - Castilian magnate.
27.Nuño Pérez De Lara (-1177?) - Castilian magnate powerful stem-to Lara (dating back to the younger branch of the descendants of the famous Count of Castile Fernand Gonzalez).
28.Tablada - present-day. Tablada del Rudron in the province of Burgos.
29.Cerrato - the area with the natural limits, located within the borders of present-day. the provinces of Palencia (the majority), Burgos and Valladolid.
30.Gonsalvo Ruiz (or Rodriguez) (aka: Gonsalvo Rodriguez Chiron) (. Ca 1160- 1231) - Castilian magnate.
31.Refers to Alvaro Ruiz, Nuno Ruiz, Pedro Ruiz Rodrigo Ruiz, Ruiz brothers Gonsalvo participants Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212
32.In this case we are talking about private power graph of a minor king, pro-flows from its guardian powers.
33.Hidalgo (from st.-caste fijodalgo.) - a hereditary warrior as opposed to individuals, in luchivshim their status personally.
34.It refers to one-third of all church income, which is based on the tithe (tenth part of the property), as well as pervinki (first offspring from SKO-ta and the newly developed areas the harvest). The tithe was going to the priests of the parish churches.
35.The text - regalengo, ie land, is under the direct control of the king..
36.Unlike abadengo - Church lands.
37.The text - "omes buenos"; This term (going back to the same value for the Latin "boni homines"), usually refers to all kinds of representatives to be appointed for the conduct of individual cases and featuring Xia good reputation and strong financial position.
38.The text - "dio ... el consseio que pudo" (. Lit. "gave the advice that could");
39.Here, "Council» (consseio) as a peaceful way to solve the problem, wi-Dimo, opposed to "help» (ayuda) as a direct power vmesha-ments.