Comparison of cultures and women's problems on the context of methodological and compravistic research
Comparison of cultures and women's problems
on the context of methodological and compravistic research
Sadagat Aliyeva, Aghasafar, PhD
associate professor on Cultural Studies of the University of Azerbaijan State Culture and Art, Honored Art Worker
(Baku c., Azerbaijan)
Comparison of cultures gives productive algorithms to epistemological (scientific knowledge) system. Comparison of culture has opened the framework for identification and differentiation operations and algorithms, thus provides various cognitive thinking (cognitive) opportunities. One of these opportunities was formulated in the period of Plato and Aristotle and is known as "to know what we do not know based on what we know." Identification serves exactly to this fact. We identify the event being not familiar for us in advance with any event being familiar and as a result, we discover the features of the second one in the first one and get specific information about it.
Keywords: comparison, culture, women, research of women.
However, there is a strange situation when formulating identification events: after all, when the event being not familiar for us is identified by us, the information obtained is getting to be wrong. Myths, magic and folklore metaphors are rich with so wrong identifications. They get the wrong information when they identify the reality of the fact, for example, the path to recover from the disease with the specific conventional signs (healing words, the music segment), the iconic signs (a description of person healing with). They believe for this mistake that, after reading a prayer over the picture of that person, that person will be healed. However, there is not a physical channel between a person and his/her picture and the processes in the picture would not pass to the person. Hence, it is wrong to equate the person as the object of treatment with his/her picture. We understand that, when we open the fallacy of magic rituals of identification, the disputes are occured. In fact, when the ideology of the Enlightenment, rationalism, modernization philosophy want to frustrate the archaic visions, the religious cultures with these arguments, the ideologists of other party put forward interesting arguments of self-defense: they remind the miraculous healing facts, the escaping cases from mental-nephrotic cases of the disease thanks to the magic. But in this debate, it is relatively easy to pull down the belief that the physical channel transmitting the disease to the human body from "the stolen human wire" of the enlightenment and rationalism. By burning the stolen wire, to identify the process of self-burning is the sample of wrong identifications of myth and religion. But even though the culture gets loss from these wrong identifications, it gets a lot of benefits in another plan: how many Hollywood films are available based on acts of magic that involve the "errors" of myths and magic to the positive solution of the serious moral goals.
If we refer to the role of epistemological and cognitive differentation, the essence of this algorithm affected by "anti-identification" concept is to escape the cognition from the illusions affected by the identification. Physiognomic identifications identify the person like in the face of the tiger with the tiger in character. At the same time, the differentiation operation prevents the incorrect mental outcome. In fact, the art world is rich with the results of the operation. The traitor carrying the name of "Yalanchi oghlu Yirtajyg" in "The Book of Dede Korkut" was similar to his name, after all, he wanted to achieve the purpose of deception in the story (1). Since the 19th century, the Russian and Azerbaijani literature is full of such identifications (eg. the meaning of "Smerdyayev" is the stench in Dostoyevsky). On the other hand, the literature is rich with this type of facts violating the identification in the principle of counterpoint: After we show the meaning of algorithm working with identification and differentiation, the benefit of compravistic approach associated with cognition is opening in the specific lines. To improve the specificity, we involve a problem put by a scientist of Azerbaijan, professor Niyazi Mehdi associated with compravistic approach. It shows that the principle of "one is not available in the other one" drives in many cases the comparative studies (2). The charm of this principle is that by raising the differences to the level of contrasts, it shows maximum level of noticeable manner. These differences, in turn, gain the special expression becaues of arousing the high wonder. In the process of reconciliation between the two cultures, based on the principle of "one is not available in the other one" for example, it is found that the behavior in a culture and the prohibition of eating are not available in the other one, while the hats, clothes and things in a culture are not available in the other one. We can give example to this non-existence of tables, stools by contrast from the Georgian rural households in Azerbaijan rural households till to the 19th century. Till to the 19th century, there were not female guests in the place where the male guests existed in Azerbaijan gatherings, but this ban to the participation of women was not available in Russians and Georgians. Even this rule became the tea houses the world of men in the Soviet Union. There is not the specific reason why the world of tea house and restaurants escaped from the male domination, probably it is related to the processes of globalization coincided with the period of independence. More specifically, the female clients of tea houses and restaurants already have to be cognited like the women who were marginal or emancipated.
Like a sign of respect, there was not the removing of hat by a man in the traditional Azerbaijani world. The head of man was to be covered both in the prayer (Namaz) and the mosque. There are even those who opened the theological basis for this rule: the cap on the head is a symbol of God's presence. But, this rule is not available in Muslims and creates two contradictory situation in Christians. Manaf Suleymanov recalls that when Alexander III came to Baku, one of the people that met him was Haji Zeynalabdin, standing in the front row, next to the governor. But, how much the governor says, the emperor did not remove the cap. Alexander III asks with dissatisfaction that from where you are. He says I am from the Russian Empire (3). The image is aware of the incident and dispute of a shining example of cultural dress code. In the impressions system of Haji Zeynalabdin, removing of hat in front of the emperor is not accepted as disrespect, but he interpret a welcoming ceremony for the emperor with "the particpation of men".
"One is not available in the other one" principle consists of the main impressions of vacations. Medieval Muslim travelers loved to surprise the readers with the facts and circumstances of their qualifications on the basis of this principle. After the Safavid Princess adopted Christianity, one of the main criteria of selection of events and facts in the road notes of Oruj bey Bayatli who got the name of "Farsista Don Juan" is "one is not available in the other one". Travels firstly were intended for Farsistan, afterwards for Spain, that is why "we" pronoun intended firstly Safavi country, then Spain (4). It should be noted that the principle that we indicated gaved its code not only to the travels, as well as the artistic texts devoted to the country conquests by Oguz Khan and Isgandar (5).
In contrast, the principle weakened the contrast severity in the comparison of cultures is seen more useful and realistic. Niyazi Mehdi formulated it as follows: "One being available in them is in such a way in us" (6). Both principle formula, as can be seen is considered positive from our side. However, we would like to challenge them in a moment. Niyazi Mehdi named the comparative principles of the article as stereotype. However, a drawback of this term is existed. He does not consider the dynamic and flexibility, but involves dried structures. However, "one is not available in the other one" and "one being available in them is in such a way in us" principles give the opportunity to work with "slippery structures", if we say with the terminology of Laka for comparative operations. Therefore, both of them is compatible with the rules of algorithm, the operation rules, not the stereotype. When working with algorithm creating from "one being available in them is in such a way in us" principle in culturological compravistic approach, you can enter to the game of differences in identifications. In philosophical terms, you pass from abstract generals to the generals in concreteness.
Now let us turn to our subject we have explained in the methodological basis for the case. The identifications and differences in the comparison of cultures by approaching to the phenomenon of women and thinking the women's awareness create chance to get multi-faceted information. Woman plays an important role in terms of the many cultural events. Throughout history, how many wars have been over a woman ( Let's remember "Illiada" and "Kitabi-Dede Korkut"'s some tribes). Love to woman was the reason and excuse to the creation of artistic texts. Female body gave silhouette and details to the beautiful clothes. This type discourses can be increased by the customs and traditions, family, religious norms and standards. If we add the results created in the culture by the list of "Anima", "Athens", "Artemis" myphs, the very impressive landscape can be seen (7). Of course, this does not mean that the list associated with the male phenomenon is taken simple. However, this means that in the comparison of cultures, in "compared to what" question, if there are four or five important phenomenon, one of them is female. It is no coincidence that the 19th century is called the century of women. When the Modernization and Europeanization in this the century covered the many countries from the Far East, to the Near East, firstly the women's emancipation led to the reform ideas and practices (8). In this century, one of the key factors determining the men's spirituality and identity was their attitude to the freedoms and rights of female.
In terms of the status of women, psychology and spirituality, the comparison of Western and Eastern cultures says a lot about these cultures. But women phenomenon creates certain illusions in those comparisons. On one hand, the facts and circumstances sufficient to show that, the distance of differences between Japanese and English female type is like two distinct world. The same can be said about the difference between Turkish and Japanese women. When these differences are found in "one is not available in the other one" principle, you can face with very exotic when behavior, dress, and even facial expressions and facts. Jawaharlal Nehru reminds that in the first years of the reign of the Mongols, the Turkic (and Afghan) women in India went for hunting and drove the horse (9). These cases were not available in Indian women of that period. And in fact, the Japanese women's ideal did not mean "that type of freedom". The social role of women in the patriarchal system of Turks was lower than men for the Hungarian turkologist R.Laszlo, but he added that in any case, the situation of the Muslims of Turkish women was greater(10). It is not difficult to assume on the basis of speculative that Turkish women who have higher status given to them was the lack of permits in the non-Turkish women (one was the lack of one compartment). Going to such interesting conclusions can be rightfully described as the subtleties. The result is that to lock the woman living in the house, the yard was impossible. Migration beat, the increase of population in the sight of each other were suggesting the involvement of all people-men and women to resolve their problems in "harem" principle to reduce situations of low behavior and communication that was difficult and pointless. Later, a sedentary lifestyle and a woman relative inertia in Turks in terms of the custom and tradition still remains to be settled, although the architecture of the space between the structure and the social layer over time and eventually see their dictation to the narrow framework of Turkish women in terms of the rules of religion . Arabs are out of this process, we see cycles of ignorance. Their life was the freedom of women that remains the traditions. Only the principle of harem women in the Abbasid period in order to narrow into a firm conviction in a closed space was available (11). When the Arab traveler - Ibn Batuta spent his time in Anatolia, he wroted: the men and women are equal. But Pars Tuglacı considers that in the first period of Ottomans, the influence of women was high notwithstanding the fact that they were in the open face (12). A similar process happened in India under the rule of the Mongols. It is already well-established political regime in power in the upper class of covering that became a symbol of women, the figure turned (Jawaharlal Nehru).
These sayings need to be careful enough when it is compared with an algorithm. When the depth is revealed that there was in one compartment, the principles are seen clearly. Victorian period described their ethical and moral reforms not only for the British Empire and had an impact on the whole world. The scale of this impact can be seen in the fact that in Japan, during the Victorian morality, in the spirit of the reforms on women in terms of Meyci reforms, "good lady and wise mother" ideology which has been formulated by the formula were formed (13).
Victorian morality, women's underwear, stripped branches considered unworthy to appear, and thus, when they need it for cleanliness, but also the spirituality was essential. However, the Victorian ethics did not accept the hijab. However, there was a saying in Islam world, women do not have basic physical, spiritual headscarf. See, this is the morality of the Victorian moral headscarf to comply with the rules of modesty towards women that Muslim thinkers may raise the idea by this way (ie in Victorian Britain)." However, this identification would not be accepted by the West to be quite wrong. One interesting fact is that Victorian morality was dominant in Europe for Islam, and Muslims in the religion are spoiled due to the promise of paradise and considered physical pleasure. Thus, his argument was found to be different from the Victorian ethics. But Europe is so strong that it was the desire to find a difference in the Islamic world and later converted to Islam Freydism, this time thanks to a change in Europe's attitude toward sexuality, it was irrelevant by accusing them of limitations (14).
Victorian morality of Islam, "what they have, we also have" principle's philosophical error in terms of identification algorithm in order to perform a mind can be seen clearly. This is an outstanding representative of the Frankfurt school of contemporary thought "to destroy by eating separating parts" thought the crisis had shown. This is the logic that the overall units are "repressive" mentality that opened as repressive points (15). Civilizations and cultures in terms of epistemology, when compared with the phenomenon of a serious threat to the woman ahowed that "what they have, we also have" principle are working with the algorithm. The danger arises from the exaggeration wrongly. There is an article by political scientist Hikmet Hajizade. One of his main ideas is that a considerable part of the national values and mentality is not related to the specifications of the original, not the patriarchal of communities (16). In fact, the idea of Hikmet Hajizade was formulated with Niyazi Mehdi terminology, we can say that if you do not have the mentality we find in others, the number of our findings in mentality shows the degree of authenticity. But the most patriarchal societies have said on national values and originality, most of them wrong mentality that became visible, because their Georgian, Russian, French, English structures can show it in the patriarchal social and mental manner.
To get out of the current deadlock, it must work with the algorithm of "it's so that from us which is different from them" gender compravistics. This process takes into account to find differences in the same things. If we compare the regorism of Victorian morality with the Islamic morality to find the differences, we saw that the presence of first woman in a broad social space, in the gathering, at the theatre, in reception ceremony puts the prohibition to her morality. Secondly, to protect the woman's shame casts set severe limits on the emergence of a large social space. In this sense, the public reserves to women are closer to the Middle Ages not only in Iran, but also Saudi Arabia. In Iran the women go some kinds of sport, drive a car and even to be an actress. Her veil according to the cover, sees the function of the sign in the type of national cloth to surround much less point so "an evil eye" doesn't protect the women maximum.
Nomadic Turkic world, of course, showed from the restrictions of women in patriarchal behavior. Bible Deborah, France Jeanne de Arc, Oguz Banu Chicek are not the typical women of their community. They were impressed with their marginal features. That is the realism of the characters described in the information as a result of the case that were not typical in reality. Romanticism was the product of a patriarchal world on women. This means that, in reality, most of the ancient and Medieval Turkish girls were upside down and had embarrassing-avoidant behavior. But, the identification of China girls behavior with constraints and limits of the Turkish girls is not true. China has failed to grow out of the girls' feet, small shoes, they have to be overcome. For the type of shoes worn by Japanese girls, the small step was sabo. Externally, the pace of them was like for Chinese girl. But there was a difference between the two gait. Japanese daughter's small step was to express the fragility of the female walk. Looking at them, to get on the horse riding in the actions of Turkish girls was seemed more freely. This parallels in the differences in the Victorian era of feminist girls can be seen very clearly. One of the first small step was required in gait. It is difficult for the women's movement and walking for the body "was wrong." The purpose of such rules for woman who was forced to walk by simple way had to show them. Medieval and Victorian-era women's clothes and women's clothing on the body, as opposed to the saying, did not prevent the free conduct of the periods.
In the previous stages of history in diferent cultures, the prohibition to going on stage of woman, that is, playing role on stage not belongs to the their genus existed in Japan, China and the Islamic states. This case begins to reveal differences after "registering” on the basis of the algorithm "we had also that what they had” by Aydin Talibzade, the prominent Azerbaijani specialist in drama study and the informational content of the article is defined by the obtained information in the process. The researcher sees the similarity on there that because of men’s fear of woman, different prohibitions are put In connection with this genus. (It seems that this Freudian idea is said by Karen Horni) . One of these prohibitions is not to allow woman going on stage. A. Talibzade indicates that even if the woman played great role in creation of the Kabuki theaters, later they are displaced from the stage and men begins to play the female characters. The same situation is observed in İndian theater Katkhali and a Chinese traditional theater. The performances of boys played vulgar-erotic dances got into girl’s appearance were widely spread in the Middle East, but not in the form of theater. "Mutribs” look like girl which are the decoration of parties, palaces belonged to this category. Another identification is that the female actress like simulyakor is substituted by man.
For Aydin Talıbzadeh, the ethical motifs were drawn slowly into the background. The aesthetic motives go to the fore. The metaphor of a woman is of a man playing a woman transformed into a decorative function on the stage. Men play women's ideal, because women are always the great women of the East scene. According to Talibzadeh, Japanese government banned the psychoanalytic situation of the emergence of women for reasons too: the government is the beginning of man, and he believes that he is the owner of all women. Therefore, he is jealous to give the woman to the scene. However, men and women, playing in theaters are aesthetic results of the Eastern end of the article from the Middle Ages. This highlights the point that is not moral aestheticism. The aesthetic point of contemporary culture, as has happened everywhere in the victory over ethical art is taking place on gender relations (18). The latter idea was to go on stage in women identification to ban some of the cultural regions of the world. Scientists pinpoint the reasons why the differences from the modern world of aesthetic and moral reasons are available. (Notice that the article itself and the application of algorithm of Niyazi Mehdi compare players explication and allow them to apply). Yuri Lotman, a famous researcher on Semiotics has an idea that he introduced to the problem leading to interesting questions. The scientists showed that the boundaries of the personality varies from culture to culture. For example, the parents of children of the age of criminal have responsibility. However, Ivan Grozny who killed the man, he killed his wife, children and servants too. According to him, the Tsar was not even close to relatives of man to afraid to take revenge. That's why it was so that his eyes are all united in the understanding of a legal entity. Lotman added that Europeans could not understand the "legal opinions" of Grozny in any way (18). The same penalty was also in ancient China. The emperor was sentenced to death of the person whose all relatives and brothers disappeared from the earth. Thus, the boundaries of the person fined for him and all of his relatives were not limited to the physical limit included in this limit. Chinese emperor had a difference with the Russian Tsar in the identification method of punishment: Ivan Grozny feared the vengeance of his relatives and did not destroy them, they would not have to consider a person. Relatives of the Emperor of China took steps to take the revenge in disciplined manner because of the social system of Confucius in front of one of his relatives that had serious commitments (17). Now, we can look at the writings of V.Kemenov in this context about the "Yelpincli woman". It shows that Spanish women was very rightless in Lope de Vega and Velázquez periods. It was her duty to protect the honor of the house of the woman's father, brothers and husband lived under strict control. For this reason, leaving her family to marry the eldest of whom was the solution (18). Proceeding from
the idea put forward by Yuri Lotman by saying that the borders of medieval Spanish woman, her husband and close relatives of the identity of the person coincided with the limits altogether. The same can be said about the state of the Azerbaijani women. Women is considered dishonorable, but the husband, the husband's brother, spilling the blood of their brothers and others, either the woman or the man suspected of killing him showed that the Chinese people and the Spaniards saw that we were on the wide boundaries of personality. Spaniards began to change this approach during the Renaissance, in the view of the serious obstacles the Soviet legal system by the saying. However, there were also other differences showed in identification. Divorce in the Catholic system was existed and, therefore, divorce was forbidden to indulge in another way. Sharia became easy the divorce, in particular, for her husband's personality that changed boundaries. Thus, women's comparative analysis of the differences between title matches and a lot of our open approach for compravistic algorithms became clear. As they say, the devil lies in the details. By paraphrasing, we can say: many scientific facts in the details are existed - the small differences are hiding.
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