The concept of war in the establishment of the "God's World" in France, the end of the X - the beginning of the XII century
The concept of war in the establishment of the "God's World" in France, the end of the X - the beginning of the XII century
by Oliver V. Aurin
Oxford University, UK
The last quarter of the tenth century. French church initiated the movement, which in the middle of the next century has been called the movement for "God's world» (pax Dei). Church efforts were primarily on-rule in the struggle with the endless internecine wars waged by both large and small lords in an extremely weakened royal power. But the desire of the world at that time turned out to be paradox-greasy due to the war. As part of the establishment of the "peace of God" CER-kov was forced to develop its own concept of "spraved-livoy War", which was significant evidence of the continuity of these antagonistic phenomena. "Just war" has become the most effective way to achieve peace. It is supplemented by new provisions at the end of XI century. in connection with the organization crusading dvi-zheniya, the idea of "just war" has gained the status of "holy war", referring to the cause of the Roman throne.
Keywords: "God's world", "a just war", "God's turn-Rie" cathedral canon, "holy war."
One of the evidences of a movement that during the eleventh century. determines the social life of the French king-tion and at the same time has been called the movement for "the peace of God," NE-Cluny wish to set up the story of the monk Raoul Glaber, given his "History of his time in the five books" (c. 1040). Raul describes the events taking place in the following way in the pages of this chronicle:
1000 After the Passion, when the famine, about which we wrote, walked and showers have become less destructive skies again showed to his joyful face. <...> The whole earth flourished again and brought a la abundance of fruits, so that any poverty disappeared. Then the bishops, abbots and other people who have devoted themselves to the service of the Church, became co-Bira people and organize churches. At these meetings they bring, whether the remains of saints and numerous relics. At first it did
Aquitaine, which served as an example to other dioceses, provinces-tion Arles and Lyons, then Burgundy kingdom and even more areas of Dalen-Frankish power where a pre-designated locations prelates and rulers collected churches to restore peace and approval faith. When people heard about it all, and the great, and medium and small, willingly went to the meeting ready to obey all-vatsya that may indicate the pastors of the Church. <...> For all mindful of the recent misfortune, and feared that they would not be able to collect hast Xia abundant harvest1.
Similar stories are found in the writings of others to write-teley, for example, in the book about the miracles of St. Benoit, written in 1043 a monk Andre Fleriyskim, and in the life of St. Adalbera compiled by Gerard of Corby in the 80 years of XI century.2When the creature Vania some differences in views about the history arose-novena movement (Raul obviously believed that people are going to set the world to thank God sent down after befallen their adversity blessings, Gerard of Corby, for example, contrary, to stop the misery and beg God for forgiveness), named nye authors were unanimous in the view that the cause of unhappiness, hit-experienced during the kingdom of France at the turn of X-XI centuries, it is a violation of the chief of the covenant of the Lord -. to live in peace, and, respectively, but could not welcome desire Church recover from Glace among Christians.
The first known attempt to establish "peace of God" in the kingdom of France is considered to be a contract concluded about 975 g at the assembly near the village of Saint-Germain-Laprade3. Here Gi Anzhuysky, Bishop of Le Puy, assembled on a large field-of its people and the diocese asked the seniors oath obliging to keep the peace and not to commit violence against the church and the poor. This oath, first of all, to protect the people who lived outside the Diocese mi possessions of the princes, and it said nothing about sud-be those who inhabited their own land. Their claims to nobility Bishop explained by the fact that in conditions approaching milleniuma all Christians should think about the atonement of sins worry about eternal salvation, the key to which is in the earth world. Initially, his appeal came across neponima-set and aristocratic resistance, since the requirement to present the Church of Tell-greatly restricted recognized for knightly estate of the law of war, directly providing susche-existence and prosperity of this social group. Nevertheless, Gi Anzhuyskomu was able to reach an agreement at the seniors, resorting to the most effective way - the help of armed groups of their relatives, graphs Brioude and Gevaudan. For assembly in Saint-Germain-Laprade followed cathedral in Sharru (June 989)4, Which was attended by prelates Aquitaine chaired Gombo, Archbishop of Bordeaux. The text of the canons of the cathedral retained Xia is the first documentary evidence of Medieval-postglacial meetings of this kind. Articles destroyers’ cathedral churches were condemned, those who attack unarmed clerics, as well as those who are plundering the property of the peasants and the poor. In one of them detailing the pets, cat-theft ryh was banned: sheep, oxen, donkeys, cows, goats, pigs. But while no specific protection mechanisms for people in B nodes and did not develop. The penalty for violation of klyatyh-you world gathered in Sharru included exclusively ecclesiastical, respectively unconvincing for most seniors sanctions. Next "the cathedral of the world" in Le Puy 990 taken under his protection a category of the population, as a trading people. In addition, the participants developed a list of actions to condemn-Mykh during the war: it included the prohibition to destroy the mill, ruin the vineyards, attacking a person walking or RETURN-cleaning-out of the church.
One of the members of the cathedral Sharru was the Duke of Aquitaine Guillaume V Iron hand, which, in fact, recognized the demands of the world, then he has initiated several "cathedrals of the world" in Limoges and Poitiers, in the period 1000 to 1014 in this co-Bran first punishment of offenders the order was declared part of the prince's jurisdiction.
994, the movement for the "peace of God" reached Burgundy. Abbot of Cluny Odilon Congress called on the clergy church thread peace between Christians and outlined the conditions of this world. He demanded that the secular elite avoided wars, urged seniors to conclude alliances and respect for the world in the church holidays, and on Saturdays and Sundays. In this way,
Odilon has revived the idea of a truce, which was formulated recognized as early as Carolingian times. The most thorough complete in the sense of determining the conditions of "peace of God" in the duchy was in the Cathedral of Verdun-sur-le-Doubs in 10165His oath under-one who understands the prohibition to select a certain property, and the prohibition to attack people during the war. First of all, lock-schalos invade the church, except for the purposes of prosecution on-rushitelya world and provided not take away from other things of the church, except for the attacker's equipment; attacking unarmed cus-Rykov and monks. The oath also included the protection of farmers, their property and cattle, under her patronage were tradesmen and servants. Participants vow gave a commitment not to cut the V-nogradnyh vines, not to destroy the mills and not take being in their harvest. Among other things, forbade swearing to attack without ruzhnyh-riders in the period from the beginning of Lent until Easter. However, it should be noted that the extensive list of prohibitions was equipped with at least an extensive list of clauses that limit the operation of the treaty. For example, the protection of the monks and clerics propagation-stranyalas only for those who have not carried a weapon and was not currently a party to the offense; otherwise, giving the oath had the right to attack these people. Once solved, burn and destroy houses if they were inside the armed horsemen, who are enemies of the lord or a thief-mi. Prohibition selected cattle only applied to animals on pasture. The reservation was made and about falconry. Senor, giving the oath, pledged to pay only the cost of the farmer killed poultry. So on-again, "thanks" to such refinements for aristocrats even in the recognition of the rules of "God's World" remained set-tion rights the first decade of the XI century. the idea of "God's World" has found its echo in the northern regions of the kingdom of France. In particular-ness, "peace council" in New Orleans in 1011 saw the introduction of in-ennyh restrictions in the presence of King Robert Blagoche Stephen. In 1023 most of the restrictions approved by the Cathedral of Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, was represented in the formulas peaceful oath Cathedral in Beauvais, composed by Bishop Guerin6. The canons of the cathedral is traditionally forbidden to rob seniors of the church, located on foreign soil, and commit violence against the peasants, as well as to break the cease-fire, not only in Saturdays and Sundays, but in the period of Easter. The conditions of the world.
Beauvais allowed to kill livestock farmers in case of need and its sustenance lord Formation. Default and recognized the right of seniors to a blood feud. For original articles of this oath should include the details specified prohibition to attack unarmed knights, as well as the prohibition of attack on women who are not specifically mentioned in the previous peace formulations. Pre-zhde just under her patronage provided to women who are not accompanied by their husbands, and widows and nuns. Among other things, the Bishop of Beauvais, with the participation of Bishop Bero Soissons proposed the creation of the world community led by the prelates.
But the terms of such a "peace" not staged all members of the church. The main opponents of the oath of Beauvais became bishops Adalberon Lansky and Zherar Kambreysky. In the Assembly of Kom piennes convened by May 1, 1023, Robert the Pious, Zherar Kambreysky condemned the formula "God's peace" proposed by the Bishops of Beauvais and Soissons7. He criticized clerics and princes, claiming the role of the direct defenders of peace, and reminded the audience that since the time of Charlemagne, the first peacekeeping functions in the state is the prerogative of the king. In August of the same year he had a new reason pagandirovat pro-peace, established kings. We are talking about-che vstre French and English monarchs in Ivua on which the decision was made to reconcile the two sides and determined the formula of a just peace in the Christian community8. In follow-up for this event sermon in Douai, Zherar Kambrey-sky again began to insist on "the world of the King," and argued that the bishops in this situation is a function of tip-tors monarch9. He urged the participants that will present, whether the church has no right to take up arms and join yourself to the fight against violators of peace. Gerard thought that makes you laugh, of spiritual and secular functions no less sinful than the war, because it can lead to the destruction of the social hierarchy established on earth by God, and, accordingly, to close the way to eternal salvation. Thoughts Gerard shared his colleague and close relative Adalberon Lansky. His ideas about the Christian world found expression in the poem "Carmen", NADI-sledge them about 103010
On the pages of this work, Bishop formulated his famous threefold formula organization of medieval society (those who pray, those who fight and those who work), in-kah frames which each class has to perform only those functions, entrusted to him by God, and in no case did not violate the order of life on earth, likened to the heavenly hierarchy. As Gerard Adalberon believed that the church can be involved
just war against violators of peace only as a mentor do, ecclesiastical king. But the concept of the world that has come Wali Gerard of Cambrai and Adalberon Lansky, does not really correspond to the political realities in the XI. The power of the French monarch, despite the efforts made by Robert Blagoche Stephen, remained extremely weak. Real power was hands rich and powerful seniors kingdom. It is therefore not surprising that the world model proposed by the Bishops of Beauvais and Soissons, was more acceptable to their contemporaries.
Attempt to implement one of the ideas Guerin Boveziyskogo and create a society of peace after a while undertook arhie-Piscopo Emo Burzhsky. In 1038, he ordered all Christians to the 15-years-of age he declare themselves enemies of the troublemakers and the two-schat, if necessary, to act against those who attack the property of the church and its ministers. This duty near-galas burzhskim prelate not only laymen, but also in Church Cove. So Emo was the organizer of the first in the West European troops, whose main task was to protect the world.
I, Emo, by the grace of God Archbishop Burzhsky, in the presence of God and His holy promise and confirm that <...> I will fight with all who captures church property who incites others to rob, who causes resentment monks, nuns, clergy, who It is threatening to the mother church, until they come to their senses. <...> I promise to resist those who would not obey these restrictions, remain steadfast in everything, while neglecting their dollars by God no knowledgeeleven.
But emo efforts in this case were in vain, since the content of the special forces require additional de-neg, in other words, new taxes, to which the population was an asset-but resist even in conditions of peace proposed.
30-40-ies. XI in. number of conciliar decrees, ka-sayuschihsya establish "God's world", is reduced, but this increases the number of oaths that insist on co-observance of terms "truce of God". If "God's world" was designed to protect the whole of the war affects unprotected categories of the population and their property, the "God truce ", first of all, was intended to exclude full-Stu war during certain time periods. It was noted above that in 994, the abbot of Cluny Odilon, and then in 1016
Participants in the Cathedral of Verdun-sur-le-Doubs attempted to prohibit any military action in Sundays and Easter. Their idea was picked up in 1027 by the Synod in Tuluzhe, who led the Bishop Berengar, and since then has been actively spreading to other parts of the kingdom. According to Mr. dogs, which initially spread to the county and the diocese of Elne Roussillon, all violence should be suspended from the ninth hour on Saturday night and an hour the first prayers in the morning nedelnik12. Subsequent Cathedral in Vic in 1033 to increase the installed synod in Tuluzhe period of time for up to three days, from Thursday evening until Monday morning. Far th promote the idea of "God's truce" in the region spo-sobstvovali efforts made by the bishops Rimbaud Arles (Arles Cathedral in 1041 established the world from Wednesday evening to Monday morning) and Leger Vennskim.
Cathedral solutions in Saint-Gilles-du-Gard in 1042 designated queue-term stage in the development of the peace movement13. It was here the first time were closely linked both ideas, "the peace of God" and "Truce of God": the military activities of seniors of any rank was banned in Prien th during the "truce of God" and restricts the definition of E-terms, when the conduct of the war became possible again. It should be noted that by this time that the formulation of the concepts of "peace of God" and "God's truce", they are increasingly fi-guriruyut to texts councils and synods, replacing the definition previously used, such as "treaty of peace» («pactum pacis»), "the establishment of peace» («constitutio pacis»), «the restoration of peace and justice» («restauratio pacis et justitial»).
Its apogee joint movement for peace reached in the ka-nonah Council of Narbonne in 105414"Truce of God" participative-ki of the cathedral decided to extend not only on Sundays but also to the numerous religious holidays, embrace-ing a whole 285 days, so only 80 days allocated for the war in the year. With specific regard to SET-tions "peace of God", the first canon of the cathedral deklarativ-but declared that no Christian has the right to kill another Christian. The 15th and 16th articles of the cathedral, respectively, were forbidden to attack unarmed clerics and monks, as well as being selected their property, 17th and 18th articles guarded possession bishops, abbots and Kanonnikov, 19-th article of defending life property of the peasants, 20, 21 and 22 canons were not allowed to encroach on the lives and property of unarmed knights. Narbonne Cathedral lords forbade revenge others, if the reason is a plot of revenge and debt disputes. The oath violators cathedral church besides penalties set Denezh-tion a fine of 40 sous. However, all these restrictions do not touch those who fought for the "God's world", including the bishops, who pro-fight continues not only in word but also in arms. Follows-blowing to say that the other way out of the prelates still was not. If Robert Pious has made at least a single attempt to bring peace to his country, his successors, King Henry I and Philip I, the problem is almost no in-The interested, in fact, they were often among those who violated the terms of peace.
Wide dissemination of the peace movement in the last third of the XI century. It contributed to the emergence in some French cities of military alliances. For example, under the guidance of local episko-dressing in 1070 in Man and in 1081 some special municipal teams to deal with violators of "God's Peace" was organized in Saint-Quentin. Thus, the experience Emo Burzhskogo received some historical value.
A new level of peace movement came in 1095, when Claire Mon State Council proclaimed the idea of a "holy war" - cross the first hike to the East15. Pope Urban II declared, "God's world" Binding to the whole Christian community and, as an integral part of "God's world", presented the struggle against non-believers. From this moment the royal peacekeeping mission has been entrusted to the Church of Rome to the Knights. In the framework of military asset-ness seniors had significance outside the Christian world, and their service has gained spiritual value, providing the Crusaders eternal salvation of the soul. At the beginning of XII century. any op-organization-specifically designed for conducting a "holy war" - the spiritual and knightly orders of the Templars Hospitallers 16.
So, as we can see, the war in the establishment of the "peace of God" throughout the history of this particular medieval social-tion of the phenomenon is not only not denied, but it was picked-yuschim moment. It was seen by contemporary’s movement as an inevitable reality that requires reflection, study and evaluation. Churches, synods and assemblies end of the world - the beginning of XII century.
in none of the cases did not try to condemn the war as such, on-cons, vows peace formulated at these congresses, one-digit recognized for knightly estate of the rules of war. The nature of the reservations against the lords of action with me-in a hundred vows, largely testified to a clear effort of those who formulated them, to minimize the loss of aristocrats, con-associated with the restriction of the rights of war.
Indeed, the very desire of the world at that time was directly associated with a con-war. Spiritual punishment, which initially threatened to become cathedrals, as a rule, do not exert the necessary influence on violators of peace vows, and certainly not for those who do not give them. Therefore, those gentlemen who were willing to take the oath Observed-world, in fact, gave a commitment not only alive Pryderi-established prohibitions, but also to take A direct-ing part in restoring order. Within the established "peace of God" church was forced to develop its own concept of "just war," which was another significant indication of the continuity of these antagonistic phenomena. It is the "just war" led by prelates of the war to which no event shall nyalis-even terms "truce of God" became the action nym way to achieve peace. It is supplemented by new provisions at the end of XI century. in connection with the organization of the crusading movement, the concept of "just war" was called "holy war". The latter have become a matter of self-Roman throne and called for military action, have-ing not only miroustanavlivayuschy internal, but also external offensive nature. "Holy War" propagandirova-las pleases God Christian mission, whose members for-deserves special grace of God.
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2.Bredero Adrian H. Christendom and Christianity in the Middle Ages: the relations between religion, church, and society. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1994. P. 113-115.
3.Contamines F. War in the Middle Ages. SPb .: Juventa, 2001. Part 2, Ch. X 2.
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7.Gesta episcoporum Sameracensium III.27 // Monumenta Germaniae Historica. SS, VII. Hannover, 1846. S. 474.
8.Gesta episcoporum Sameracensium III.37. S. 480-481.
9.9Gesta episcoporum Sameracensium III.52. S. 486-489.
10.Adalbéron de Laon. Poème au roi Robert / Éd. et trad. C. Carozzi. P .: Les Belles Lettres, 1979.
11.Op. by: Bredero Adrian H. Op. cit. P. 114.
12.M. block Decree. Op. Pp 406.
13.Supplément à l'Analyse des conciles généraux et particuliers. T. 5 / Ed. par Ch.-L. Richard. P .: Chez Benoît Morin, 1777. P. 150.
14.Les conciles généraux et particuliers. R. 261.
15.Ibid. R. 297.
16.Demurzhe A. The Life and Death of the Knights Templar. SPb .: Eurasia, 2008. Part 1. Ch. 2.