The Barbarian aspect" of the procopius uprising

The Barbarian aspect" of the procopius uprising

 

by Devid W. Orlean
University of Kentucky, USA

 


Article analyzes the problem of the participation of the barbarian tribes in the Sun-pitched Procopius 365-366 years. and their union with the Roman provincials.

Keywords: The Roman Empire, barbarians, insurrection, usurpation, province, provincial, soldiers.

 


Revolt of Procopius 365-366 years. in the eastern part of the Roman Empire, not overlooked researchers Antic-ness. The course of events in the IV one of the many attempts to usurp the supreme power. analyzed in the works of XIX-XX centuries.1, In the Num-le and in Russian2. Scientists involved in this issue, is trying to use all the available sources. But some aspects of the problem remain controversial and do not have a unique solution. These include the problem of interpretation of the co-authors of the ancient communication about the composition of participants in the uprising and special-no - problem of relations between the population of the Roman provinces, and representatives of alien peoples during specific events associated with con-Procopius.

 

Ammian Martsellin detail introduces its listeners and readers with this man, "Procopius came from a noble family; originally he was from Cilicia, where he received his education. Kinship with Julian (propinquitate Iulianum ... contingebat), koto-ing later became emperor, helped his nomination, and since his first speech at the public arena, he was in full view. In private life and character he differed restraint, was secretive and silent. He had a long and perfectly served Notari Stands and was already close to the top rung. After the death of Constantius in the coup, he is a relative of the emperor (imperatoris cognatus), conceived hopes of higher status and was included among the count "3. Belonging to the genus Constant Ting noted by other ancient authors4. As Notaro Pro copies perform important assignments Emperor Constance II (Amm Marc XVII 14. 3;.... XVIII 6. 17). During the Persian campaign of Julian "squad, as there is in the mind of his military plans, 30 thousand chosen soldiers and put them under the command of mention, even higher Procopius, to which he seconded with equal authority to the count Sebastian, former Dux Egypt» (Amm. Marc XXIII 3. 5;.. XXV 8.7;. 16). After the surrender of Nisibis "Procopius was ordered to go with the remains of Julian, and bring them in the comb on the outskirts of Tarsus as he ordered Julian during his lifetime. Journeyed to the Emperor's body, Procopius immediately after the funeral, was gone, and he could not find anywhere, despite the most careful search, until he appeared suddenly, much later, in Constantinople in the purple clothes of the emperor »(Amm. Marc. XXV. 9. 12-13). Ammian Martsellin reports rumors that Julian during his lifetime appointed Procopius his successor: "It is said that before the altar without witnesses, he re-gave secretly to his relative (propinquo suo) Procopius purple-tion cloak, instructing him immediately to seize the supreme power, if it is received the news of his death in Persia ... Upon entry into Persia, Julian left him with Sabinianom, leaving last the same rights, in Mesopotamia led considerable-governmental military forces and instructed him how to read a vague rumor - with Uwe-rennostyu nobody e claimed - act according to the circumstances, which learns and if to his attention before-going, that the Roman business suffered in Persia failure, take care to proclaim himself emperor. Without arrogance and with great care he performed the duties assigned to it. When he learned that Julian was mortally wounded

He died that Jovian received the supreme power and that this race-voluminous false rumor that Julian at his last gasp expressed a desire to Handle Sovereign stvom trusted was Procopius, he was afraid, as if he was not on-Stigl for this reason execution without trial, and decided to escape. And since Procopius learned that he was wanted very hard, then, wishing to avoid the burden of fierce hostility, I went to unknown remote areas "5. Some modern scholars I believe that such a legend could appear after the start of the Boc-pitched and could even be deliberately initiated by the Pro-spear or its environment to create the legitimacy of claims to higher authority6.

According to its position and origin, as well as in connection with the on-circumstance in which he was - to live in peace is still not allowed - Procopius had reason to fight for power. Only Themistius in a speech to Valens and delivered after the suppression of the last revolt of Procopius, understandably sought to belittle the man: "When hostile-tion gods man lived all his life in the fate of a scribe from ne-Nala and ink, think to dare to power over the Romans - gi-cabling of disastrous, who is Typhon of Cilicia Korikov ... »(Them Or VII 86...). "He never considered well executed-lem, but envious and criminal» (Them. Or. VII. 90).

The usurpation of Procopius lasted from September 27 365 of 27 May 366 It began with the proclamation of his emperor in Constantinople, the events developed in the vicinity of the capital, the provinces of Bithynia, the Hellespont and Thrace.

One of the interpretations of these events lies in the fact that on the eve of the uprising, on the Danube, the Visigoths in 378, "here already seething national-liberation struggle, there is support s-gavshihsya barbarians and merge with these invasions. The main center of this struggle became Thrace, as shown by the events connected with the revolt of the usurper Procopius. <...> His uprising has therefore been characterized by a broad national liberation struggle against the Roman subjugation, with the support of barbarian tribes who have come from across the Danube "7.

The above thesis is composed of two very serious assertion-tion, one - on the main part of the rebels, the other - on vzaimoot-wearing population of the Roman Empire and the alien peoples, each of which requires a thorough analysis of sources. In this SLU-tea will focus on the second problem, since the first question a different point of view expressed in many works8.

Well-known fact of Procopius to tervingam "When Procopius was defeated in Phrygia and internal Sec-ry stopped, Master cavalry Victor was sent to the Goths to definitely ascertain on what basis the people, friend-governmental Romans and the related agreement of lasting peace, has support person to start a war against the legitimate govt yard. As a full justification for their actions Goths image

They presented a letter of Procopius, who said that he accepted the supreme power belongs to him as well, close MEMBER Konstantinova kind »(Amm. Marc. XXVII. 5. 1). Ammian Mar tsellin shows three thousand tervingov (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 10. 3). This is reported by other authors (Eun. Fr. 37). Take part in the battles tervingi not yet.

Sending auxiliaries federates of the Romans demand was common in the IV.9As part of the troops uzurpato-ra were more auxilia (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 8. 5), these auxiliary-governmental squads could also serve as a barbarian mercenaries. But the same kind of troops and were under the rule of the emperor Valens. The set-set of commanders and soldiers, tempted by "the hope of the ogre-WIDE awards (spe praemiorum ingentium)» (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 6. 13) is first switched to the side of Procopius, and then, "taking care of any benefit (attenti ad omne compendium [Amm. Marc. XXVI. 6. 14]) 'returned to the rightful emperor. The corruption of late Roman army was manifested in the IV. repeatedly. Among those who strongly and quickly changed his political orientation in 365-366 years. and from the West by their names, were the Romans, and the Germans (aguilón, Gomoary, wadomari), but both of them were in military service.

HELL. Dmitry Thrace considered the main center of the uprising Pro-copy, because there were a lot of unhappy on predatory lair-in-law policy of Valens Petronius10But, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, Petronius rioted in all domains Valenta (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 6. 6-9), and the Thrace except siege Philippopolis (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 10. 4-6), military operations were not carried out. HELL. Dmitry believed that Procopius' gaining strength precisely in the province, where there were many barbarians - men, co-malonic and slaves, "groaned under the same burden." These vnut-rennie barbarians lost under the sky Empire their freedom and oppressed over measures have played a prominent role in the uprising Prokom Pia. They flocked to his banner from all sides, entrained on-dezhdami rid of the unbearable oppression of the empire "eleven. With this position fully associates I. Khan, not further-the number of times referring to a passing remark in one of retsen EM-zy Shtaerman12.

Without questioning the plight of the inhabitants of Rome-tion of the empire, I would like to relate this assertion with evidence sources. The quotation included in it, - the text of Ammianus, though he talking about suffering from the oppression of the provincials and soldiers Petronius (provincialium et militum paria gementium - Amm. Marc. XXVI. 6. 9). Historian clearly distressed the fate of the free inhabitants of the state, and those who serve him. On-in relative who was surrounded by Procopius, he writes: "In stavschiki provisions, court ministers, present and former soldiers who have completed their term of service in the military units and those who turn Xia has a more peaceful life, were involved, some against their will, others in agreement with it, to the dubious fate of unexpected-foot challenger »(Amm. Marc. XXVI. 7. 1), that is, they were people who in one way or another connected with the army, regardless of the place of Bani-lived. Thrace, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, worried pro-copy, as there were military forces that can quickly crush the insurgency is so cunning he lured to Constantinople commanded them Komichi Julia. "Through this clever deception was acquired without blood on martial-Thrace settlement and thus obtained it was a great help in the breakaway enterprises» (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 7. 5). Social and ethnic structure bellatrices Thraciae gentes is not decrypted, and in the future they do not participate in hostilities. And expressing GL-set Kurbatov "Thracian peasantry (agrestes) stubbornly defend their freedom, finding support among settlements on the borders of the empire ready-federates, and the proximity of the free-tion barbarian periphery allowed them to count on the support Varva-ditch from abroad"13It is difficult to confirm the source, as in the first part, and especially in the second.

Contemporaries uprising Procopius addition Ammianus Mar tsellina were famous orators Themistius and CIMMYT, pro-worn speech before the emperor in 369 and 366/7 years. Neither one nor the other did not mention the barbarians, while in the IV. especially prized victory over the barbarians14. Themistius, calling Valens to Milocer-Dieu in relation to the defeated, says, "that <it is inherent> Barbarians - continuously pursue the Romans, and the Romans under-menitelno to the Romans must be a <specific> measure - <opportunity> to fix <the admitted> error »(... Them Or VII 94), and further mentions those who went to Valens," can enumerate "the ranks" <attracted you to their store-well,> - separate strategies, separately taxiarch, many captains, silts archers silts riders <participants> "grand council" »(Them. Or. VII. 97). Quintus Aurelius Symmachus calls Procopius re-bellis exul and personal enemy Valentinian I15.

The only author who reports that Procopius secu-chili considerable multitude of soldiers' squads Romans and Barbarians ( "Also" came and other barbarian tribes - in order to take part in the company ( "- this Zosimus (Zos IV 7. 1-2) Pre-position AD Dmitreva that" words "... "Zosim outlined mass barbarian settlers in Thrace"16No trace of a text-17: It is a question of detachments and of the Romans, and of Varva-ditch above mentioned about the composition of the Roman army in the IV.

Composing Zosima - later. About dating him, "But-ing history" is an ongoing debate over a wide range from the middle of V in. until the middle of the VI.18But most researchers tend to top, or the first two decades of the VI.19This product - a very uneven in value. Dost degree of fidelity of one or another of the historical work is heavily dependent on those sources which it is based, and many other objective and subjective factors.

Description Zosima usurpation of Procopius inaccuracy abounds-ness20. In particular, it refers to a much larger number sent due Istra ready - 10 tysyach (Zos IV 7. 2..). All researchers of leaning toward smaller numbers, counting information Zosima exaggerated21. Further, according to Zosimas Procopies first captivating Garrison Constantinople consisting of two rows-otrya (Zos IV 5. 4..), And then - legions passing therethrough (Zos. IV. 6. 3), but in the capital, there was no garrison22, Ammian Martsellin-communicates with only two guide Thrace bribed legions (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 6. 12). Their relative Marcel la Procopies with detachment sent Bithynia, where it acted (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 10. 1). By Zosima same Marcellus participated in the siege Cyzicus (Zos. IV. 6. 5), although there distinguished Alyson stands (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 8. 9-10). By Zosima, in Marcellus we found some royal apparel, conveyed to him by Procopius (Zos. IV. 8. 4). Ta Kim, in his work Zosima may notice some doubling of events in the development of the uprising.

Pretty exotic Zosimus describes backstory Restore-tion. If Ammian Martsellin reports that Procopius hide Xia pursuers in unknown locations, and then made his way to Chalcedon (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 6. 4), according to Zosima, "elected autocrats Valentinian and Valens (they first looked at it suspicious) immediately sent <people> who were to capture the <it>. He betrayed itself in their hands and letting de lat, what they want, first uttered the right to talk to his wife see the children. When they allowed it, he <ordered> cooki-twist them a feast. Seeing that they were drunk, <Procopius> together with their families fled to the Pont Euxine, and from there, up on the ship, arrived in the Chersonese. There he spent some time and found that the local residents can not be trusted, and he was afraid that he had not been given to detectives, sent to search for him. Noticing sailing by a cargo ship, he entrusted him with himself and his relatives. It reached Constantinople still dark »(Zos. IV. 5. 1-2). One of the modern research rightly sees in this colorful description of the "flavor of the Greek novel"23. The vast majority of scientists, Catching-yuschihsya this issue, based on the text of Ammianus, not even mentioning the version Zosima24.

It seems to taste Greek novel is present not only in this episode, but in the whole story, related to Procopius. For example, during the campaign 367, at war with tervingami, which served as a pretext for sending ready to Procopius, the local operation was carried out. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Valens Dep-lift in Arinfeya Corps Master's raid with a group, and they took a few families tervingov who had not managed to hide (Amm. Marc.

XXVII. 5. 4). In Zosima, apparently about the same event has remained a go-Sec more colorful story with clearly hasty ending, as there were still two military season. "Because they did not dare to come together <the Romans> in melee, but took refuge in the swamps and made out covert attacks, <Valens> at Casa soldiers remain in the country and, gathering as it was possible to servants () and guards (), which he < before> in ruchil protect belongings, promised some <amount> gold to the one who will bring the enemy's head. Overcome by greed, penetrated into the forests and swamps, all immediately began to kill those they met; and showing the head slaughtered, gets put-ing <award>; when thus killed a large number of <enemy>, the rest began to ask the emperor of the world »(Zos. IV. 11. 2-3).

You should probably listen to those who believe that "reading" new history ", it is necessary with great diligence to separate the wheat from the Tribes-led. Zosima have a lot of truth, although it is mixed with a large coli honors the fables "25.

Considering all the above, and the silence of other sources-ing a marked participation of the barbarians in the revolt of Procopius, it is difficult to find reliable evidence of Zosima. It seems that It says that "the Union is composed of the lower classes of the empire barbarians "26, Especially since it is not necessary. The population of the Roman pro-Winz perceived as an alien conquerors and treat them accordingly. In one of the preserved frag ments works Eunapius well reflected attitude to go-there, marching to the aid of Procopius: "It was said then that the approximate-zhayuschiesya Scythians were arrogant, they despised anyone who they meet, were prone to excesses and insults and all behaved arrogantly and insolently "27. Evidence Ammianus on assistance Goths in 378 dedititsiyami or prisoners (Amm. Marc. XXXI. 6. 5) can not reinforce the thesis Union-tion places population and barbarians since dedititsii as social-hydrochloric group derived from barbarians, not to mention the prisoners.

AD Adoption Dmitreva: "The mass terror, which brought down on Valens Thrace after the suppression of the uprising, clearly demonstrates the large scale of the liberation struggle against anti-growth-tion Thracian population that supported Procopius. Valent sent a punitive expedition under the command of Victor and Arinfeya pacify Thrace and ready to punish, supported the liberation struggle. It was a real robber campaign against the emperor of his subjects, a new war against the Empire of the Thracian people. While part of the Roman army will break-las in the internal region is ready, another mending bloody strife-woo in Thrace "28It is true only to the Goths. All operations were conducted outside the borders of the Roman Empire on the left bank of the Danube, on the territory of the Thrace heavily fortified defenses29. Terror was sent as clearly evidenced by Ammian Martsellin, in the persons of the environment Procopius: "... started a ferocious persecution involved in the case, and in relation to the set-GIH much more cruel than demanded their errors or misconduct," with a lot of abuse. "And there was no limit to this terrible disaster, until he Empire-tor and his family did not had enough money and blood» (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 10. 6-14).

Thus, sources of evidence do not allow govo-rit of participatory barbarian tribes in the revolt of Procopius, and the more of an alliance of Roman provincials with the barbarians.


1.Notes

2.See., Eg .: Rubin B. Prokopios von Kaisareia // Realencyclopädie der clas-sischen Alterturnswissenschaft. Bd. 23. Hibd [45]. Stuttgart, 1957. S. 252-256; Folkerts Dr.M. Prokopios // Der Kleine Pauly. Bd. 5. Stuttgart, 1965. S. 1164; Jones AHM The Later Roman Empire (284-602). Oxford, 1964. Vol. 2. P. 1033; The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. 13 / Ed. by A. Cameron, P. Garnsey. Oxford, 2008. P. 89-91; Lenski N. Failure of Empire. Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century AD Berkeley; Los Angeles, 2002. P. 68-115; Gibbon E. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire / Trans. from English. VN Nevedomsky. M .; SPb., 1994. P. 291-294.

3.See Dmitry .: AD Rise of the Visigoths on the Danube and the revolution of slaves // Bulletin of ancient history. Number 1. 1950. pp 66-80; Khan I. On the question of the social bases of the usurpation of Procopius // Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. T. 6, fasc. 1-2. Budapest, 1958. C. 199-211; Kurbatov GL Revolt of Procopius (365- 366 years.) // Byzantine Annals. T. 1958. 14 (39). Pp 3-26; aka. On the issue of territorial distribution of the revolt of Procopius (365-366 gg.) // Visan-tiyskie essays. M., 1961, pp 64-92.

4.Amm. Marc.XXVI. 6. 1; See also:. XXVII. 5. 1 (Ammiani Marcellini. Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt / Ed. W. Seyfarth. Vol. 1-2. Leipzig, 1978. Translation hereinafter by ed .: Ammian Martsellin. Roman History / Trans. From the Latin. Yu A. Kulakovskogo and AI Sonny. SPb., 1996).

5.Eun. Fr. 34. 3 (Eunapius Text and Translation // The Fragmentary Classicising His-torians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus / Ed and transl by RC Blockley Vol 2. Liverpool, 1983.....); Them. Or. VII. 92: "... brow-century, Constantine covers and shamelessly entices its other name» (Themistii Orationes quae supersunt / Rec H. Schenkel, opus consumm G. Downey et AF Norman Vol 1-2 Leipzig, 1965-...... 1971). I express my deep blah tude AS Vanyukov for the opportunity to use his unpublished translations of Themistius and Zosimus.

6.Amm. Marc.XXIII. 3. 2; XXVI. 6. 2-4; See also:. Zos. IV. 4. 2; III. 12. 5 (Zosimus. Opera / Ex rec. I. Bekkeri. Bonnae, 1837).

7.Lenski N. Op. cit. P. 70.

8.Dmitry AD Decree. Op. S. 69-70.

9.See. Note. 1.

10.Budanov VP Goths in the era of the Great Migration. SPb., 2001. P. 182.

11.HELL. Dmitriev calls Petronius praetorian prefect, but those at the time was Nebridy (Amm. Marc. XXVI. 7. 4).

12.Dmitry AD Decree. Op. S. 69.

13.Khan I. Decree. Op. C. 200, 207 (EM Shtaerman M. Pallasse. Orient et Occident. A propos du Colonat Romain au Bas-Empire. Lyon, 1950. P. 93 // Byzantine vremennik. T., 1953. 7 (32). S. 327, 329).

14.Kurbatov GL Rise Prokopii ... C 7 17.

15.Lenski N. Op. cit. P. 138.

16.Symm. Or. I. 17, 19 (Q. Aurelii Symmachi Orationum quae supersunt / Ed by O. Seeck, 1883;.. Reprinted Munich, 2001).

17.Dmitry AD. Decree. Op. S. 69. I. Khan writes: "It is correct point of view-tion of Soviet researchers, which Procopius uprising sees the movement of peasants of Asia Minor, the barbarian mercenaries, colonists and slaves" (I. Khan op S. 207..). Barbarian mercenaries were indeed servants, too (Them. Or. VII. 99), and the peasants and colonists sources are silent.

18.Budanov VP Decree. Op. Pp 183.

19.Kazhdan, AP Zosime, Histoire nouvelle. T. 1 (livres I et II) / Texte établi et traduit par F. Paschoud. P., 1971 // Bulletin of ancient history. Number 4. 1975. pp 166.

20.See: Scavoni DC Zosimus and his Historical Model // Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies. Vol. 11. Durham, 1970. P. 57; Go ff art W. Zosimus, the First Historian of Rome's Fall // The American Historical Review. 1971. Vol. 76. P. 421; Ridley RT Zosimus the Historian // Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 1972. Bd. 65. S. 280; Paschoud F. Zosime, Eunape et Olympiodore, Témoins des Invasions Barbares // Das Reich und die Barbaren / Hrsg. EK Chrysos und A. Schwarcz; Verö entlichungen des Instituts für österreichische Ge-schichtsforchung. Bd. 29. Wien, 1989. S. 181; Udaltsov ZV Conceptually-political fight early Byzantine (data historians IV-VII cc.). M., 1974, pp 93; Goat-fishing AS Some aspects of the "problem of the barbarians" in the "New History" Zosima // antiquity and the Middle Ages. Sat. 14. Sverdlovsk, 1977. 52 pp.

21.Since the first scientific publication unabated accusations against Zosya flow-ma due to negligence, various errors and distortion-Detect-conjugated in the text (Go ff art W. Op cit P. 413..); a list of those in one of the hundred-dren takes ten pages of fine print (Ridley RT Op. cit. P. 293-302).

22.VP Budanov writes: ". ... it can be said that either Zosimus, referring to the 10 thousand soldiers who came to the aid of Procopius, increased their number, or part ready to have time to go to their land before the Emperor Valens sent against them punitive espeditsiyu ..." ( Budanova VP op. cit. pp 184).

23.Ridley RT Op. cit. P. 300; Lenski N. Op. cit. P. 71.

24.Lenski N. Op. cit. P. 71. D. Skeyvoni drew attention to another passage Zosima, which also uses the motif of soldering guards (Zos. II. 27), and believes that one can see in this the influence of Herodotus, Wed .: Her. II. 121 (Scavoni DC Op. Cit. P. 59-60).

25.A rare exception is E. Gibbon, which sets out precisely it: Gibbon E. Decree. Op.

26.Bolgov NN Zosimus - the last ancient historian // Questions of history. 8. number 2006. pp 164.

27.Kurbatov GL Revolt of Procopius ... P. 3.

28.Eunap. Fr. 37 (translation by SJ Destunisa ed .: Byzantine historians: Dexippus, Evnapy, Olympiodorus, Malchus, Peter the Patrician, Menander, Candide, and Nonnus Feo-fan Byzantine Ryazan., 2003).

29.Dmitry AD Decree. Op. C. 70.

See: Yermolov IE The war of the emperor Valens with tervingami // Journal of Russian State Humanitarian University. 2013. № 13 (114). A series of "historical science. General history". S.