Ethnocultural relations of China with the peoples of Central Asia in antiquity and the MiddleAges

Ethnocultural relations of China with the

peoples of Central Asia
in antiquity and the MiddleAges

by Ivan E. Ermolov

Moscow M.V.Lomonosov state University, Russia




The article is devoted to a holistic analysis of the forms and stages of formation development of China's ethnic and cultural relations with the peoples of Central Asia in ancient and Medieval. Direction, the nature, scope and intensity of contacts between civilizations are defined by sitesitive factors such as the antiquity, originality and potential of contacting cultures, socio-political situation, time-vita means of communication, and so on. D.

Keywords China, Central Asia, ancient, Medieval.

 

 



For the reconstruction of the formation of relations on the trans-then initial stage in ancient times important data-based surveys, anthropology, archeology and pale ecology materials Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.

Antropological researching such important and complex issues such as the role of the Mongolian, china and Turkic, Tongues, Tibet-Burmese, Iranian, Arab and other ethnic peoples in the formation of the first composition of the population of East and Central Asia; pro-way penetration of different race components; the nature of their amuses-tin, fragmentation and interference in different historical periods. Experience to date experience of studying the dynamics of dispersion and anthropological structure of Eastern and Central Asian populations suggests that the differentiation of cranial complexes proceeded zonal, but in this region1. Consequently, ranges of synchronous expanding cultures anthropological communities ranges overlap sometimes stretched pulse across the entire Eurasian continent. This caused a multicomponent own cultures and anthropological structure of their carriers.

The Neolithic era in the east and in the center of the Asian continental-she gradually began to form independent, and co-consummate different cultural areas. The emergence and development of each type of culture in ancient times caused first of all of the natural environment and adapt ways. Sformirova-were the main lines of demarcation zones of the northern nomadic culture, farming culture Srednekitayskoy on peer-to-no and southern irrigation farming culture. At all times, lichiyah between the central plains and southern China, they are not of a fundamental nature, while between Central China Plain and northwestern nomadic world of the time-differences are significant. The separation into two distinct areas - nomadic. It farming accompanied by unavoidable reacting rd and interpenetration. A manifestation of this was the novena originated-intermediate buffer zone between the two forms of culture. Specificity topography was an important prerequisite the condition of mutual enrichment of the two cultural zones. Although pro-assimilation process of material and spiritual culture of both sides ran parallel, however it is the food and objects of mother-cial production of particular interest to its neighbors. Differences techniques perform artistic images, as well as change the set of images and related systems abstract geometric patterns suggest a significant process of ethnic and cultural change in Central Asia and Ce-right China during the period that separates the Neolithic and Bronze-age-hand. Under the influence of natural and ecological environment in Eastern Eurasia happened crossroads of the evolution of two civilizations, when peaceful contacts were replaced by conflicts. The interaction of cultures was not only The historically-skiing possible, but essential.

Thus, we can say that the formation of otno-between solutions of the ancient population of East and Central Asia were the result of general historical development in the respectively-Corollary to environmental conditions.

The transition to the Bronze Age marks a new stage in the development of relations between East and Central Asia, as the historically ski-established contacts become dependent on the necessary Mosti interchange of cultural and technical achievements. At this stage, the largest value-nye acquire communicative possibilities of the peoples of the steppe and forest steppe of Eurasia. These anthropological studies show that Terry torii Central Asia active mutual contacts can be for-fix 700 BC. e, and in Southern Siberia -. from the beginning of Bron-century zovogo2. The invention wagons, chariots and horse harness to a large extent affected the appearance of cultures and ethnic situation in the steppes of Eurasia. Summarizing the presently known data can be roughly divided into three times. 1 - an era in sleigh (4-3 millennium BC...) When many cultures, especially cattle, have become more mobile, as if Utilized-wheeled vehicles. 2 - epoch chariot (2 thousand BC...), Coh da is a further development of the most optimal forms of cattle; Harness invention harnesses and chariots different Ti-dressing, which greatly increased mobility and Agres-sivnost many crops Eurasian steppe; allocation of crafts, especially the formation of metal-working centers. 3 - the first epoch riders (one thousand BC...) When steppe culture osvai vayut horse-riding under; changing forms of farming (vertical or year-round complex nomadism the herds), are convenient and easily tolerable home utensils, set of equestrian weapons and so on. n., which spread rapidly, are in the steppe cultures, from the Urals to Mongolia. Formed the main directions of cultural relations: to the north - with taiga tribes to the south - with the agricultural, from China to India and to the west. This process created the preconditions for the establishment of relation-tion between the two regions.

As for the time of the Bronze and early Iron Age Ki-th covering Shang-Yin and Zhou, it is precisely for this period can be most clearly see evidence of AV tohtonnosti formation of its culture or clearly identify the features of interferences with neighboring cultures. If we assume that the culture of the Shang autochthonous, we should expect that in China this and the preceding period archaeologists will obna-o n those traces of gradual evolutionary development from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age, the one who could safely associate this culture with the preceding. But despite the hard work-ing archaeologists such trace has yet been found. In addressing the issue of how and when the bronze appeared in East Asia, it should be noted that at the start of 2 thousand. BC. e. near the border China (North India, Central Asia, including South Siberia) already existed a culture of the Bronze Age. Bronze culture Shang Yin appears in China without preceding Evo-Lucia. Typological analysis of Chinese products (form Bron-zovyh products and "animal style" in the ornament) and the study of the composition of Chinese bronze revealed parallels with things step-governmental cultures3. Finds in graves in the north of Xinjiang decrees vayut-on contact with Afanasiev culture of South Siberia and its effect observed since the beginning of 2 thousand. BC. e. Thus, it is possible that in the first half 2 thousand. BC. e. one of the earliest Bronze-O cultures of China, culture Qiji, could adopt the technology of bronze metallurgy from cultures in the Sayano-Altai region of southern Siberia4.

All this allows us to talk about a major transformation-s on the verge of the beginning of the Bronze Age in China, and most importantly, to see in the xy-dozhestvennyh bronzes natural rate of change. In-mer of this transformation is the appearance traditions

 

Yin and rannechzhouskoe time chariots and horses as draft animals for his chariots, their equipment, weapons-wheel-border fighters. Chinese chariots were first applied in the Xia Yin epoch in the XIV-XII centuries. BC. e. Along with the chariot in China

Shang-yin, a host of advanced types of bronze weapons -.. knives, axes, socketed spearheads, etc. The study of the Yin bronze weapons shows that the most developed types it does not have prototypes among the Chinese Neolithic stone tools and morphologically go back to a more primitive -s types of non-Chinese bronze weapons in Central Asia, Siberia and other regions of Eurasia. In addition, the study of bronze-O blades Karasuk type, previously considered the results-Tat Chinese influence in Siberia, showed that the effect was reversed. Even more clearly exemplified socketed weapons (Celts, spearheads) that appeared concurrently with Menno-chariot, and as is clear from the special investigations, could only come from the West. An important material proof-stvom availability of existing ethnic and cultural contacts of the peoples of East and Central Asia can serve findings nephritis these regions. Finds from the sites investigated in the provinces of Gansu-tion, show that this area was an infiltration of the transfer zone to the south of the cultural achievements of the peoples of Central range, in particular the "animal STI-la" in art. It was then that many of the stereotypes were formed behavior and thinking Chinese who clearly seen behind-the-fact for centuries.

China's ethno-cultural contacts with the population tsentralnoazi-ASCT regions continued to develop rapidly in the next era. Archaeological evidence suggests that the benefit of giving this relationship through the Scythian intermediaries, with the help of the nomadic peoples of Siberia on the territory of the empire appeared and iron objects, and the earliest method of smelting this me-Tull5. But all the technical and technological features have been invented and added to already by the Chinese themselves, transforming per-then initial idea of ​​the features and capabilities of this material.

The study of China's relations with the population-Niemi steppe zone of Central Asia during the Bronze Age and injuries-he of the Iron Age, we come to the conclusion that they were determined, fissile to the emergence in Asia of bronze and iron-production, distribution domesticated-govern-mental horse transport many weapons and so on. d. However, the subsequent transformation enabled them to infiltrate so material culture that they have become part of Chinese tradi-tion. Ethno-cultural contacts with the Western world in this period contributed to the formation of the Chinese developed a stratum-ology, on the scope of relations with the surrounding nations to rannehanskoy era. Since that time, policy otno-sheniyu to neighboring nations was to attach them to the elite of the Chinese way of life, to arouse interest in Chinese goods, to ensure that all the Chinese acquired in common-stve special value and significance. As far as this kind of policy has been implemented, it can be seen in numerous examples The historically-ing relations with the Central Asian nation-mi in later periods.

Starting from a II. BC. e. China's relations with the West are re-regularly and clearly expressed in several different major-visibility: formed by the Great Silk Road, there Ambassadorial-contractual and trade relations, and provide a variety of hikes, partly aggressive. In general, things are torture to extend the influence of the empire at the state-term Central Asia, and even "kitaizirovalis" specific population groups in the region.

Characteristic of ancient China can be considered two bases-governmental type of interstate relations: the basis of the first is the concept of "di th" - "equal states", the second is based on the Confucian doctrine "miroustroitelnye monarchy", koto-paradise considered all other countries as potential tributaries towards China. It is this sinotsentricheskaya concept and theory of ethnic and cultural superiority residents "middle kingdom" over the surrounding marginal world "Varva-ditch four countries of the world" began to spread on the interstate-governmental relations and China's diplomacy with the countries and the people-mi, placed outside. The third important principle of relations with Western countries, based on mutually advantageous, especially trade, cooperation, formed under the influence of the real situation, when China became possible relations with Central Asia developed countries in the Middle Ages.

Specifically, particularly intense ethnic and cultural contacts with the Chinese Central Asian nations made at the expense of functioning of trade routes of the Silk Road. We can say with confidence that the formation of trade road eye-Zali influenced by several factors: first, the route follows the wali of the more ancient roads of migrations, well known from previous peaceful and military contacts; secondly, considering the safety of the path-las, which depended both on the climate geographical factors and the possibility of escape to local tribes-downs; Thirdly, it is necessary to have in-frastructure.

In addition to trade an important aspect of inter-ethnic and cultural activities were diplomatic contacts, which is accompanied, were given an active exchange of embassies and diplomatic missions, and, consequently, the offering of gifts and diplomatic receptions such as contracts, warranties Coto ryh provided with hostage-taking or dynastic marriages.

An important element in the development of relations between the Empire and Central Asia has been the penetration of new religious Uche-tion in China, which was a direct result of the expansion of trade contacts. In turn, the spread of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Nestorian et al. In China is able to update themselves, boost trade along the Silk Road.

However, with the development of relations with distant state-mi Central Asia and further to the West for China of this period remains a topical issue of relations with the neighboring Coche-vym population of Central Asia. China's policy in relation-SRI surrounding nomadic peoples, especially in Central Asia vary considerably in different historical periods, although the strategy was always the same - the maximum expand the scope of the influence-tion of the surrounding territory and at the same time protect the NACE-Lenie his state against external aggression. At the initial stage of China has solved this problem in an effort to alienate the nomads from their borders and isolate themselves as much as possible from penetrating. One-to protect the borders with defensive structures require large material costs and did not bring the desired results. Whereas policy towards nomads was re-looking and used new tactics of struggle with the nomads - the resettlement of nomadic tribes in the border areas of China. Their task was to defend the frontier territories from intruders other nomads. Since that time the problem of ethnic and cultural contacts affect the scope of relations with Neki-Thai people in the territory of China in the period of early-Middle Ages. Since that time, it begins to show a feature of Chinese civilization is the fact that all the elements introduced by gradually adapting, siniziru-are and become elements of Chinese culture itself.

A separate issue is possible to allocate penetration of China-tion of material culture in the territory of South Siberia and its influence on the formation of local traditions. Important ASPEK-ter in establishing close contacts between China and yuzhnosi-Birsky nations were geography and The historically ski-established nature of economic and cultural ties with the region. Chinese-made products fall here as trophies or gifts, as a result of barter or trade6. In the zones of collision of cultures at different economic and social development levels, the group standing in the lower stage of social and economic development, are beginning to show the desire for social consolidation, reorganization of its social structure, the transition from on-fittings separate and relatively independent of nomadic tribal groups to centralized social education. It is this kind of phenomenon and occur in Hun (Xiongnu) environment, when the Chinese dynasty in the course of their mutual Bor-growing and would strengthen internal consolidation BOOP-zhennoe pressure on nomadic Ordos, Gansu and other heaven-ones of the Chinese borderlands. A study of Chinese products imported from the northern part of the monuments of Central Asian Hun-Sarmatian time showed the following aspects: firstly, the bulk of the finds discovered among Hun materials Sargatka Tashtyk and cultures; Second, China's imports divided into two categories: the massive use items (zer-kala, coins, some articles of lacquer and silk) and items ro-Scotia (bronzes, ceremonial weapons, ceremonial silk clothes and accessories, and so on. ).; Thirdly, the Chinese import-exerting a significant influence on the development of local traditions.

Based on the study results, it is possible to reconstruct the two mechanisms of cultural interaction between the Siberian on-delivery and China. One of them is based on hunno Tashtyk-tra-ditsii relationships. The presence of imported Chinese products

ordinary tribesmen, a large number of imitations, Sde lannyh local artisans, construction of fortified towns, the emergence of agriculture and pig farming, irrigation, CCA-singular-burial ritual traditions, and so on. d. indicate significant cultural penetration of the Chinese tradition and its influence. On the other hand, Sargatskoe contact options that can be set only by the presence of luxury goods is likely to involve only trade relations.

Due to China ultimately had a major impact on the emergence and development of settled agricultural economy at the local nomads, such as the Huns, because, gradually mastering the basics of Chinese handicrafts and construction business, they eventually began to create their own permanent settlements. The influence of the agricultural traditions can be explained by the emergence of some specific rites herdsmen. However, the presence of a certain type of material objects while allowing the second-vorit on imports of symbolic and mystical elements in China, but no evidence of a consistent representation of religious import-tion. Traces of penetration elements of the Chinese culture were also observed in the visual arts, such as ornamental ke: Image combating yascheroobraznogo dragon with two tigers image horned and winged wolf, a curved pattern in the form of parallel spirals, concentric circles, poluova-fishing, etc... they are applied when painting plaster masks, carved in bone, wood and birch bark products, which in themselves constitute innovations in the local material culture. As part of a possible Chinese influence on the culture of southern Siberia can be distinguished burial ritual in the sepulchral-kah-mannequin dolls, masks, wooden funerary models sheathed daggers, bows, arrow shafts, often painted Red color. Similar funerary customs of the country-wide propagation in China and reflected in the archaeological materials, pis-variables sources in the Chinese ethnography. For techno-troscopies Chinese dates clay recipe for producing specific South Siberian vessels "Kyrgyz vases". Their quality clay, technology, shape and ornamentation printed reproduce china-parameter techniques. A large number of vases found in South Siberia-term, evidence of the close relationship of the population with Mongolia and China living here. Widely practiced manufacturing imitations of Chinese local products, such as mirrors. However, attention is drawn to the fact that among the large number of different mirrors local craftsmen chose to copy only a few people close to them by Orna-mental reasons. Enriched at the expense of the Tang, the Sassanid and the whole Central Asian motifs, craftsmen develop their own style. Such mirrors are found on the northern borders of China, the Altai Yenisei in Tuva.

We can confidently assert that the ethnic and cultural interaction was a decisive factor in the appearance of the ground-Delia, permanent settlements and certain types of craft and build-ing in the case of the nomadic peoples of Central Asia (Usuns, Huns, and so on. D.). The Chinese introduced peoples Central Noi Asia lacquer ware, ceremonial umbrellas, neko-torymi kinds of jewelry, including jade, new ornamental motifs and patterns on silk, mirrors, woode-liyah silver, ceramics and so on. D. Penetration significant the number of Chinese elements can be attributed to innovations in-tra-traditional areas of material culture: the emergence of new types of mirrors almost the entire territory of Central Asia; "Sino-kharoshtskih" coins in East Turkestan and central-noaziatskih cast on the Chinese model and technology; non-domestic utensils which kinds - low wooden tables, wicker products, ceramics and celadon porcelain in the courts, bronze coppers, earwigs metal-pins, pin tsetov; jewelry and t. d. Equally important is the Chinese component in the Central Asian culture associated with Buddhism.

On the basis of archaeological material clearly traced-vayutsya the frequency and intensity of the China-Central Asian contacts. in Central Asian culture East Asian active implementation of components marked up until the middle of the VIII century. (Loss of control of China over much of the western segment of the Silk Road). Further ethnocultures nye China's contacts with the Central Asian agricultural peoples observed sporadically.

The most intensive contacts of Chinese civilization peoples of South Siberia occur during periods of Hun predominance in Central Asia (with II in. BC. e. to the III. BC. e.) and the existence of the Kyrgyz State (VII-XI centuries. with re-nearly continuously), which coincided with the strengthening of the Chinese empire and the implementation of the most successful policies Boc exact Turkestan. East Asian influence on the material culture of the South Siberian peoples was insignificant in ne-IRS weakening the Chinese state and counteraction between civilizations contacts by the nomadic peoples of the Juan-juan and Turks (III-VI cent.), The Uighur Khanate (end VIII - the beginning of the IX.), Mongolian tribes (from the beginning of the XIII century.). Intermediation in the Khitan and Jurchen (XI-XII centuries.) In China and South Siberian peoples greatly limit the penetration of the influence of its culture to the North contacts, but contributes Valo-emergence of Korean and Japanese products in the region7.

We have collected data allowed you confident enough, to reveal the main direction and the result of inter-ethnic and cultural activities in China and Central Asia from ancient times to the beginning of the XIII century. The assimilation of the best in the culture of other countries, in particular the strict selection of foreign cultural achievements of civilization, was one of the factors of the development of China and the peoples of Central Asia. However, the priority position in the relations between Eastern and Cen-tral Asia in the period after the start of operation of silk Vågå way is China.

Study the formation and development of ethnocultural con beats China with Central Asian peoples in antiquity and among Ages allows you to see how these relations manifested in the development of the contacting parties.

For agricultural oases of Central Asia relations China had a fundamental impact on the appearance and time-vitie new branches of local production. It is above all the introduction of sericulture and silk weaving (Sogd) technology you iron-smelting (Fergana), paper making; rice cultivation, peaches, apricots, cinnamon and the like. d.

Relationship with strong settled agricultural civilization (in the case of China) have a fundamental effect on economic, political and cultural development of the steppe on-delivery Eurasia. The economic aspect of the nomads are largely dependent on the logo-A settled population. Of course, the nomadic way of life involves an optionally-divergence of content with minimal life-stvami convenient, but communication with the settled population, in which there are many more (products of agricultural labor, handicraft productst. e.), stimulates the nomads and to improve their living conditions. Several ways to do this - trade with the neighboring sedentary peoples, demand tribute periodic raids or conquest. However, these actions legkoosuschestvimy only if the neighboring sedentary population is weak and poorly prepara-Leno to resist foreign aggression. Accordingly, sosedstvovanie nomads with strong states, such as for example Ki-tai in some periods of its development, encouraging them to create tribal organizations, and even the empire.

In fact, one can observe and political dependence-bridge (the second aspect), which is evident in this case that the organization and strengthening of the settled population, by stimulating the development of the same process and with certain nomadic al-nokulturnymi features. Moreover, the management of a large association of nomadic peoples requires the use of administra-tive skills, which are also often borrowed from the neighbors. It contributes to the appearance of Settlement and the nomadic elite of the population.

The third aspect - cultural. The formation of large, strong-tion of nomadic empires of the population who had different religious beliefs contributed to the development or adoption mirovoz-view, provides the spiritual unity of the entrance to this obe-union of peoples headed by the supreme leader.

China's relations with the peoples of Central Asia, two key areas can be distinguished - the relationship with agriculture-cal sedentary civilizations and relations with the nomadic peri-feriey.

As for the sedentary peoples, it is obvious that the relationship built on the basis of mutually beneficial priorities. Firstly, this trade relationship, which started frequently-governmental merchants and travelers, try to realize their own interests, broaden our understanding of the outside world. It is thanks to them that the first contacts were adjusted and were pro-lozheny the most convenient way to the neighboring regions, on the basis of

ecological and geographical situation of that time. When the contacts have become regular and began to bring real income, first the neighboring states, and then began to use them long-term in its geopolitical interests. Since being established diplo-matic relations, accompanied by the organization of the entire spectrum of contract services, tangible evidence that the archaeological investigations open on China and the Western world territories. In turn, the development of trade and economic ethnocultural relations occurs on the basis of the political situation.

In other ethno-cultural contacts are formed in China with Coche-howl periphery. And here it is necessary to take into account several principles-cial important aspects. Firstly, the nomads did not recognize gosu donative borders, believing that they can enjoy the benefits of all the surrounding area, to which are able to get. Freedom in the conquest of the world may be limited only by the strength of their resistance to raids by those who have mastered these areas. On this basis, it develops contradiction nomadic sedentary peoples.

Central Asian territories, including the north-yuzhnosi Birsky region, and the western borders of East Asia, in terms of the ecological situation, are the most figure-nym example of such a conflict between nomads and farmers lymi-A settled. Sosedstvovanie territory of nomads from the borders of China, to which they often get faster and easier than even cross his steppe, created conditions for the re-regularly raids on border rural communities. Roaming on large areas, adopting and creating their weapons, constantly practicing warfare, nomads, undoubtedly superior to the Chinese army's mobility and in the level of techni-agency equipping weapons. Accordingly, the Chinese were forced to constantly adapt and reform their army. For example, eliminate the use of martial wheels-down in favor of the cavalry, because the horse nomads It exceeds, went their movement speed and attack. For the development of riding required to use a different style Clothing--dy. And the Chinese have to start applying attributes of nomadic th robes - long trousers and short jackets, fastened the buckles and straps with hooks. Naturally, the Chinese decorate encrusted these items on the basis of their artistic representations, but essentially it is the same style of the nomads.

The presence of the nomads in the western and northern periphery of the Chinese forces him to constantly find new ways to protect their possessions. It could be the strengthening of military defense (the construction of the Great Wall, the army reform and attempt to out-Drita at best at that time weapons agents borrow-bathrooms again the nomads), and methods of use of the enemy-dy between different nomadic tribes (the policy of " conquest barbarian hands of the barbarians "or resettlement of nomads on the border first, and then in the confines of their state), and the policy of luring the nomadic elite benefits of peace" friendship "(giving expensive gifts and paying out the tribute, even in veils bath odds e), and other means. Depending on the internal situation in the country, all these funds have been used in different periods with varying degrees of success. Naturally, many of the achievements of nomadic civilization have been adopted and adapted to the culture of China, which significantly expanded its capacity and in communication with other civilizations of the West.

For China, these relationships were key to that name, but in the process of solving the problem to find the optimal shape of the coexistence-tweaked with the surrounding nations were developed principles of its uniqueness, based on a policy of wise maneuvering, sinizatsii, the ability to adapt and transform other people's achievements-tion in their interests. This will ensure that the inner shaft of the Chinese culture in different historical conditions.

 


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