Ethnocultural relations of China with the peoples of Central Asia in antiquity and the MiddleAges

by Ivan E. Ermolov

Moscow M.V.Lomonosov state University, Russia

The article is devoted to a holistic analysis of the forms and stages of formation development of China's ethnic and cultural relations with the peoples of Central Asia in ancient and Medieval. Direction, the nature, scope and intensity of contacts between civilizations are defined by sitesitive factors such as the antiquity, originality and potential of contacting cultures, socio-political situation, time-vita means of communication, and so on. D.

Keywords China, Central Asia, ancient, Medieval.


Eisphora - military tax in peacetime (according to the treaties on the lease of public land in Attica mid-IV century. bc. e.)


by Enrique B. Brain

Georgetown University, USA



Abstract: Purpose of the article - the consideration for the payment of eyesore (Extraordinarition tax) members of the public land lease in Attica in the IV. before e. Based on a careful study of epigraphy (on public land lease inscriptions in Attica) data the author draws Attention to the cases of charging eysfory in transactions with public property. Eysfora was paid by both citizens and non-governmental organizations. The amount of the tax depended on many factors (income from the leased land from agricultural production and other conditions).

Keywords: public land, eysfora, tenants Teli, contract, demos, Oregon.



Emperor of Constance'sin the church historyconcentration of Constantinople by Yaakov Talsabaskiy

Saint Louis University, USA

ABSTRACT: This text is not so much a special study as the introduction to this collection. Article examines the role of war in the history of civilization by analyzing essay relationship between the concepts of war and peace in different historical periods, an assessment of the war as a phenomenon, is a typology of wars.

Keywords: war, peace, history of civilization, the ancient world, the Middle Ages, modern times.