The ethical approach to the historical objects of Islamic art in the modern time

The ethical approach to the historical objects

of Islamic art in the modern time

 

Jamila Hashimova

Institute of Philosophy of ANAS, Azerbaijan


art_jamilya@mail.ru

 

Abstract. The art of Islam is beautiful in the Muslim world In Islam, art has always occupied an important place.If you read Islamic teachings, you can be sure that this religion professes an aesthetic view of life.Often Muslims repeat the phrase that God is beautiful, He loves beauty.Therefore, the art of Islam recognizes beauty as an attribute of the Divine essence.The art of the integrity of the world even without turning to the great works of art of Islam, beauty and artistry can be seen in the daily life of Muslims.Religion obliges them to have good manners.Muslims should be clean and tidy, not only in religious affairs, but also in ordinary life.These are clear indications of beauty, as her understanding of the Quran gives.

 

Keywords: Islam, art, Khalifat, Middle Ages, arab and ajam culture.

The connection between the beautiful and the everyday If you examine the art of Islam in detail, concrete examples, you can see a close connection between the beautiful and ordinary life of people.The very words of the Arabic language, by which the word "art" is translated, have a more complex meaning than in Western philosophy.Art in Arabic - is not only the works of artists and creators, but the proper performance of any case, useful skill.The art of Islam always emphasizes the close connection of objects of beauty and knowledge.Many Arab masters say that art appears as a result of a happy marriage between skill and wisdom.Therefore, many masterpieces of Islamic art are filled with not only beauty, but also knowledge.One beauty Beauty in Islamic art, as it were, transmits a message from God.In different forms of art reflects the spiritual and celestial origin of Islam.Art in this religion encourages the believer to go to the Lord.Creators draw their inspiration from the Revelation and are constantly in close contact with it.Many artists and other creators carefully study the Koran in order to find there a hidden meaning.Often the Qur'an becomes the starting point for new verses and sounds, words and rhymes.On the souls of Muslims, art works in an amazing way, but it comes from thinking about the life of the Prophet, the beauty of his soul.All this is an internal impulse of the development of art in Islam.In the art of Islam, the spirit of revelation that permeates it is important.Outside of God there is no beauty and in this Muslims are sure.Muslim architects, artists and sculptors, other masters have a deep sense of harmony and unity of the whole.

Discussion.Traditionally, there are five architectural schools belonging to the Muslim culture: German-Egyptian, Tatar, Jewish, Moorish (the architecture of Muslim Spain and countriesMaghreb) and Ottoman;Other schools - such as, for example, Iraqi or Central Asian, are considered derivatives.[3]

In the first decadesHijrahThe Arabs adapted for their purposes those buildings that they found in the conquered cities.When the state of the Caliphs became powerful, Moslems began to build mosques.For the device of the mosque were needed: space for worshipers, mihrab, there is a small niche or special mark on the wall on the side that faces towards Mecca, Department of reading the Quran, prayers and sermons (the pulpit), spacious courtyard, surrounded by covered galleries, in which those who came to prayer could rest and hide themselves from the heat, reservoir or fountain for ablutions, prescribed by the prophet, , two or more minarets- high towers with a balcony, from wheremuezzincalls the faithful to prayer.[2]

Initially, for the architecture of the East, religious buildings in the form of an Arabian column mosque were characteristic.But over time, there were other forms, different in different countries and regions. The most common was a four-building structure, typical of religious buildings (mosque, madrasah), and civil buildings.In canonical form, this is a large structure with a rectangular courtyard, with each side frameda vaulted hall that is open on one side to the courtyard. Along with the four-track composition, simple portal-dome buildings that combine the portal and the closed cube of the building, crowned with a dome, also spread.A huge role belonged to the ornamentation that covered large architectural plots beyond the square.Initially, the ornament, made of bricks and carved terracotta tiles, was monochrome.But later they began to apply lining neither colorful ceramic mosaics and brightly painted glazes tiles[4].

The first mosque was built in Medina right after the Hijra.It was a wide courtyard enclosed by a wall;On the north side (facing Jerusalem) to protect the believers from the sun, it was covered with a roof, fortified on palm trunks.After Islam was conquered by Mecca, a niche was created in the mosques, indicating the direction to Mecca.[3]

About the success of Arab-Egyptianarchitecture is evidenced by the Cairothe Mosque of Ibn Tulun(876-879).Among other mosques, Cairo deserves mentionSultan Hassan's Mosque(XIVat.).Bizarre ornamentation of the wallsarabesques, inscriptions and mosaics portal polukupolnym vault resting on t.n.stalactites, as well as the imposing dimensions of this mosque make it one of the most outstanding monuments of Arab architecture.[2]

On the spread of traditionsPersianarchitecture outside of Iran testifiesmausoleum of the Samanid dynastyin Bukhara, dating from the year 907.It is a square building with a dome.Rich in light, as well as playing shadows in the reliefs of masonry, the building is considered a classic work of Central Asian architecture.[5]

Islamic art flourished particularlySpain.Here the most significant monument of Arab art is the fortress palaceAlhambranear Granada[2](mid XIII- the end of the century XIV[6]).The grandiose building has about 3.5km in perimeter and surrounded by a fence with many towers.The gallery of columns is surrounded by a large rectangular courtyard, called Patio de los Arrayanes (Myrtovy Dvor).From the northern narrow side of this rectangle is the entrance to the Hall of Messengers, a square room with a dome, about 20 highm. To the east of the Mirtovy Dvor is the Lion's Court with a fountain resting on 12 lions.This court is adjoined by the Hall of Two Sisters, named so because of two broad equal sizes of marble slabs, and the Judicial Hall.Around the yards there are porticoes, cool chambers, small gardens with beating fountains and outgoing balconies.The walls of the chambers are covered with luxurious mosaic, the vaults with their ornaments resemble the cells of a hive.However, on the outside, the Alhambra appears to be strict, low-symmetrical and more like a fortress.[7]

For the fates of the fine arts in the Arab countries, as in the countries of the Middle East, the iconoclastic tendency of Islam was important.Islam denied the possibility of depicting a deity.In the Qur'an, idols (probably images of ancient tribal gods) are called Satan's obsession.In the cult buildings it was not allowed to put images of people.The Koran and other theological books were decorated with ornamentation only.But initially in Islam there was no prohibition to depict living beings, formulated as a religious law.Only later, probably in 9-10 centuries, the iconoclastic tendency of Islam was used to prohibit a certain category of images under penalty of punishment in the afterlife.History has shown that these limitations,imposedimprint on developmentcertain types of art, were not always observed and not everywhere.They mattered and were strictly observed only during periods of especial strengthening of religious reaction.

Islam never allowed­external resemblance between God and the­man or other earthly existence­Therefore, the fine arts turned out to be excluded from the religious life of the Muslim­Nina, remaining part of mainly secular culture.Although the Qur'an did not forbid the portrayal of people­dey and animals, in some hadiths it was said that Muhammad blamed such artists.Prida­By depicting the image in real form, the person thus, as it were,­God has his exclusive right to­on creativity, violating the main position of Islam "There is no God but Allah ...".Since IX century.similar statements appeared in God­words, but each time there was an interpreter, an explanation­It is understood that the prohibition does not concern­as such, and use­their objects as objects of worship.

If there are no images of man ("Surat"), then there is neither plot, nor portrait, nor landscape painting (except book miniatures).Nothing, such iconography or temple sculpture in the Muslim art was not and could not be.

Nevertheless, there was a secular art, to which this secret prohibition did not apply.Luxury goods were created, books were rewritten, which were decorated with remarkable, subtle miniatures.The flourishing of miniature art in Central Asia, as well as on the territory of the Great Mogul Empire.

In subsequent times, the unofficial ban on painting and sculpture was not strictly observed, but a few portraits and statues created on an exceptional basis could not have much influence on the development of art.In addition, such work, as a rule, was entrusted to artists from Christians.They belong to works of art, which the later caliphs ordered for themselves.Thus, the Caliph of Covarria arranged in his palace statues depicting himself, his wives and slaves playing musical instruments.Abdurahman II erected in honor of the beautiful Azarra her statue at the entrance to Medina Azarra.

 

 Pic.1. Bahram Gur in the fight against the DragonShah-naming.Shiraz, 1370.Hazine 1151, folio 206B

 

And yet, the main bearer of the idea of ​​Islam was not the image, but the word, artistically decorated in the form of an inscription or symbol.The basis of Muslim art is calligraphy and ornamentation (arabesque) - the art of depicting the word and the art of depicting a symbol, respectively. [6]

Islam transformed geometry into a form of art, constantly applying the principles of symmetry, proportionality and scale change to create amazing artistic effects.With the basics of geometry on the plane, it seems that every weaver was familiar (if it is not so, then the intuitive sense of mathematics seems to be embedded in the genotype of Muslims).The architects of Islam knew perfectly well and applied spatial geometry.In addition to precise mathematical calculation of eachwork of art of the Islamic world features a thin, delicate taste.That's why, even things that have a utilitarian meaning - for example, carpets or books - go beyond the framework of decorative applied art or book graphics and become works of high art.

The sacred word of the Quran, inscribed on the ear­dah-portals and walls of buildings, on­written on bindings and pages­manuscripts included in patterns on fabrics, carpets, ceramics­glass, or metal, woven­in ornaments on fountains and tombstones, accompanied by Muslims­manina all his life.This word­the whole world of spiritual experiences of the believer, gave him a genuine aesthetic­pleasure.Calligraphy and Op­namet - decorative forms of the embodiment of ideas about the devil­the finite diversity and beauty of the world created by Allah - one hundred­whether the foundations of the artistic creativity of Muslims.

 

 Pic.2. The Holy Koran.

Since the Koran itself does not explicitly prohibit images of the living, it is proposed to look for the orthodox religious expression of the prohibition in the interpretations of the Qur'an, which flourished after the death of the Prophet Hadith, representing a kind of setting for the Koran.However, this point of view is illegal, for it does not disclose not only the psychology of the emergence of the prohibition of images in Muslim orthodoxy, but also does not explain the reasons for the negative attitude toward monumental painting among the peoples brought up by the Muslim religion under its strong influence in the medieval era.Finally, the prohibition of images of cult paintings and figurations in art is not the same thing.Hadiths prescribed to depict nature, landscapes, but not man, not to depict God, saints, martyrs, for God was conceived as pure spirituality, purified from all human and accidental.The idea of ​​Allah - this spiritual substance - is the end result of critical thinking. [4]

How did it happen that the image ban led to the cult of ornamentation, to freeze any depiction for several centuries until the painting has not worked out all the inner strength of its development a new artistic language on the basis of artistictraditions and won the right to independent existence (in particular, in the genre book miniatures) in the late Middle Ages?
The negative attitude to images, which later turned into the persecution of representativeness, was born along with the Koran, evolved, became concrete with the development of Islamic orthodoxy.It is a logical consequence of the whole philosophy of this religion - a specific understanding of God and the concept of a person who has brought the polarization of the spiritual and material, heavenly and earthly to the extreme.

God, understood in Islam as pure spirituality, purified of any earthly elements, not having human, anthropomorphic features, could not be depicted.Islam offers a rationalistic way of understanding God.Sharply contrasting the celestial and earthly, Islam, like any religion, metaphysically breaks their unity, hypertrophies the meaning of the heavenly.The principle of interaction between the spiritual and the material, God and man is based on dependence.Excessively thorough purification of the spiritual is intended to shade miserliness, the nothingness of the material.This contradiction, slowly growing in Islam, is resolved by the absolute dissolution of the personality in the deity.Islam, as a world religion, is all the more tenacious, adapted to existence, and all the more reactionary and dangerous, which hinders the initiative of man, his creative possibilities.

The prohibition of the image of God and idolatry resulted in the prohibition of the image of man, for a person in Islam does not represent any value beyond the divine idea.Admit the image of a person meant in Islam to go some way to compromise with pagan god-understanding.The Quran, consistently pursuing the idea of ​​monotheism, eventually came to the prohibition of images of all living things, for it was seen as imitation of the actions of Allah.

The alienation of fine art to a religiously colored "ideal" in Islam led to the prohibition of fine art in general.The categorical prohibition of art by Islam is a reflection of the conflict between two forms of social consciousness, a reflection of the contradiction between the inner essence of religion and art, for painting and sculpture are such kinds of art where the mystical idea hardly finds the possibility of material embodiment. [7]

The removal of the opposition between religious faith and art, i.e. the artistic form of cognition, occurs in Islam, not by using art as a religion, but by abandoning fine art.Nevertheless, despite the "taboo" imposed by the Muslim religion on fine arts (painting, sculpture), despite the hostility, openly manifested by Islam in relation to images, the creative spirit of the people, their aesthetic consciousness, the artistic vision of the world could not be finalized and completely drown out.

The progressive trend of social life, which is powered art reveals the contradiction that develops between religious ideology and artistic development of "Muslim" nations.Remarkable wall paintings of the first two centuries of Islam (VII-VIII cc.), Opened in Panjakent, Varakhsha Afrasibe stylistically shaped art book miniatures, influenced the development of the popular forms of arts and crafts and art industry in medieval Central Asia.

 

 Pic. 3. Miraj-name (Ascension of Mohammed).

Of Sarai Albums. Tabriz, the beginning of the 14th century.

Hazine 2154, folio 107a

 

Bourgeois scientists exploring the eastern art, said that it represents a departure from the religious norms. However, they are not seeking to penetrate deeper into this controversy, see it as an objective law in art, which arose not from scratch, but its roots dating back to the artistic culture of previous eras. They do not see the organic link of fine art progressive medieval ideology, worldview of the great medieval Muslim thinkers, scientists, classical poets so-called Muslim Renaissance, as well as the aesthetic theories of the time.

However, some of them are on the opposite positions. So, at the VI Arab Archaeological Congress in 1957 in Baghdad, Mohammed Mustafa said that the portraits of people, as well as images of birds and animals are in the works of Islamic art from all eras, beginning with the rise of Islam, and in all countries. Therefore M. Mustafa concludes that Islamic art is not religious and therefore in the mosques no statues or paintings on religious themes.

However, the artists of medieval Central Asia, sometimes without departing from the medieval ideology, and often boldly stepping over them, created the remarkable examples of painting, applied and decorative arts. The main features of this art were determined not so much by religion as by ideological andaesthetic challenges that pushed forward the progress of development of society in the era of feudalism.

Thus, Islam, on the one hand, taking under its aegis all forms of social consciousness, all areas of life, the state system, created a totalitarian closed system of medieval religious thought, has led to the specifics of psychology, especially the aesthetic element of social consciousness, and thus created the alienation of Eastern culture from the West. A related specific perception of antiquity in the era of the Muslim Renaissance, when, due to religious restrictions Muslim world, neither the ancient Greek epic, nor ancient tragedy were taken, nor antique plastic, as well as the rejection of the artistic achievements of art of Christian medieval Byzantium, contempt for this art that gave birth among its believers of Islam. There have affected especially the art of the Muslim peoples as a religious nature (architecture, manuscripts of scriptures) and secular (miniature book), as well as the arts and crafts of the people, which determined the further ways of its development. [2]

Early handwriting - ku'fi, gravitated to the rectilinearnym,geometrize the form of letters, prevailed in the Muslim calligraphy up to the XII century.and she was canonized as handwriting, which are written the title verses of the Qur'an.

The ethical approach to the historical objects of Islamic art in the modern time 


Pic.4. Name of Allah, Kufi handwriting (mosaic, Samarkand)

 

At the heart of the six writing styles lay system "authorized letter" - Hutt mansub, invented Baghdad calligrapher Ibn Mukla (886-940). This system proportions defined-governingratio of vertical and horizontal elements of letters, and the letters in the word line. OSNoveclassical Arabic handwriting Persian calligraphers developed new styles - talik and nasta'lik, which in turn gave birth to the setWuexquisite decorative handwriting. In Iran, Azerbaijan and Turkey in the XV-XVII centuries. distributedXiaspecial calligraphy genre - China: a miniature picture of the sample of one or more handwriting. [3]

Instrument letter served kala'm - reed pen, a method which ochinki depend on the selected style and the traditions of the school. Treatise XIV author. Now islyal"Kalam ochinyaetsya obliquely, and know - Kalam tip should reflect actual phalanx of Paltsa,but Baghdad scribes ochinyayut his long fingernails ...". Writing materials were papyrus, parchment and paper, the production of which has been established in Samarkand (Central Asia) in the 60-ies. VIII in., And the end in X. - and in some other cities of the Muslim world. Sheets coated with starch paste andan isolatedcrystal egg, making the paper rafthydrochloricand durable, and inflicted colored inkmiletters and patterns - clear, bright and shiny.

In the 15-17 centuriesin the Muslim world it has spread a special kind of art - China - miniature paintings, representing at the same time a sample of one or more handwriting.

Islamic architects knew well and used spatial geometry.In addition to precise mathematical calculation of each work of art of the Islamic world features a thin, delicate taste.That's why, even things that are utilitarian sense - for example, carpets and books - are outside the scope of arts and crafts, or book graphics and become works of high art.

Ornament pattern, built on the rhythmic alternation and orderly arrangement of elements.Depending on the nature of the motives of the following types of patterns: geometric, floral, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic.

The geometric pattern is composed of points, lines (straight lines, polygonal lines, zigzag, grid-intersecting), and shapes (circles, diamonds, polyhedrons, stars, crosses, spirals, etc.). Not every pattern can be regarded as an ornament.Pattern freely fill the plane, it is not.By the nature of the composition are the following types of ornaments: a multicolor pattern can be (polychromatic) and monochrome (monochrome) is made on the convex surface of the object, in relief, or, conversely, recessed.

In the Islamic world ornament art was brought to the highest degree of perfection, allowing to allocate it in a special kind of art - arabesque.

Philosophical and aesthetic alternative to Islam

During the long struggle between the two main directions in Islam - sunizma and Shia - to victory in the official, the main church came the most orthodox and intolerant to any modification sunizm.This was evident with regard to the problem of figurative, visual play God and the world.And if Christianity struggle ikonopochitateley and iconoclasts led yet to win the first and Christianity created a broad framework for playback of the world, to create the image of a man-god, in this way Islam was expelled.

Here there was a very interesting paradox apprehended largely Christian theology, Islam completely rejected the principles of Christian artistic imagery.Although the Qur'an is not clearly expressed, and certain bans on the image, the official church strictly adhere to these principles.

Moreover, not only to Muslim theology, but even so-called "Muslim philosophy" largely sought theoretically to justify such an attitude to the world, to his knowledge, and playback. Even the Farabi, an advocate of rationalist knowledge and humanism, clear translucent Muslim idea of ​​predestination and the stability of the world. "Divine Providence - writes Farabi - extends to all, it is associated with every single thing, and all things shall be subject to the sentence of God and predestination it."

Consequently, no one but God, can not and must not only create something new, but even reproduce what God created, so as soon as he owns the decision of the fate of every single thing. In the epistemological aspect of the idea of ​​Muslim orthodoxy originally interpreted and justified Muslim peripatetic Ibn Sina, who wrote in his famous "Book of Salvation": "With regard to the speculative forces that tend to get her impression of the general, abstract forms of matter. If the latter will be distracted by themselves, it will just take them, and if not, it will be their abstract, that they had no connection with any matter. "

Speculative force, according to Ibn-Sina, is the highest capacity of human knowledge of God and the world, and therefore an abstraction devoid of material sensual bolochki, is the highest form of knowledge, and, therefore, man's spiritual eyes to be turned away from the "rough" material reality, from concrete material objects and phenomena. One way or another, but this idea is very close to the Muslim idea neizobrazimosti God and all that is sensual images; theoretically it "confirms" the validity of Islam bans.

Finally, the idea of ​​struggle with sensuality and human passions is most clearly expressed in the philosophy of the fierce defender of orthodox Islam, as a gas. Speaking about the ethics problems, Ghazali, in his treatise "get rid of the delusion" says that one of them is to find "ways of healing the soul and passion to overcome her." As an example of gas results in the life of the saints of the Sufi saints, "men worthy and inflexible in the contemplation of God and counteracting passion, to follow the path that leads to the Almighty Allah, which they shun worldly pleasures."

So, to overcome the passions and liberation from worldly pleasures - that is the true path of the righteous, and, of course, along the way may not be art, the aesthetic relationship of man to the world, and even to God.This is the concept of extreme austerity, but austerity, it is encouraged by the Muslim theology.

Thus, predestination, divine Providence, elevation and absolution of speculation, gravitating to the abstractions, the fight against the passions of human and worldly pleasures sharply limit the ability of art existence in the orthodox Muslim world, or at least require him to completely certain deformation of its figurative, sensual, the emotional nature. [4]

So religious and philosophical reflections of Islam resolved in favor of abstract and speculative philosophy and aesthetics.Art should be a structure in Islam something forever frozen in their canonical, constant motifs abstract geometric or floral ornament in fantastic arabesques and lush wreath and tie Arabic writing in the sayings of the great rulers of tombstones or pediments mosques and madrassas.

This religious-philosophical and aesthetic abstract speculative immutability Islamic concept complements and reinforces the concept of the immutability of the Muslim social ideal. "Islam - writes British researcher D. Hopwood - do not know about the new representation as the best.His ideal norms - in the past, in the era of Mohammed and the four Rightly-Guided Caliphs. "And so the art of Islam but to follow the canonical artistic principles required and social uniqueness and permanence.

Yet the ideology of Islam in general, and its aesthetic and artistic principles in particular coincide with some of the characteristics of the national stock of life and artistic thinking of many nations and peoples of the Middle East, Central Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa ... for artistic thinking of nations and nationalities characteristic deep sense of decoration, ornamentation, rhythm, synthetic unity decorative accent pattern and the plane.

The man in the art of these peoples lives are not more like a particular image, and as the emotional world, as the mood, the music rhythms and patterns. Thus, even in the eastern miniature, far from the official ideology of Islam, "... infinitely varied similar themes and topics ... The idea of the product was expressednot only through the theme and the plot ... as an internal image of the structure." A good example of such art are amazing to miniature "Baburnama".

And not only the music rhythms and patterns, but very close to the art of music aesthetic consciousness of Muslim nations;it is music that lives' greatest passion, often turning into spontaneous sensuality, desire for the transfer of all the expressive bends down emotional loving, yearning, suffering, enthusiastic personality.This is - a deep interest in the inner world of experiences ... It is - the pursuit of straight refined sensuous enjoyment .... "[5]The image in this art (in a broad sense) was polisemantichen, generalized maximum, veins often to the point of abstraction, there was more than a sign as ornamentally embellished narrative than as reliable, sensitive concretely isomorphic phenomenon. It is this feature of the "Eastern" artistic thinking deeply felt and understood Islam, making sounding and inscribed the word and decorative arts major in the system of arts, serving it.

That's what gave him the opportunity and strictly limit the impact on human arts, and at the same time into his emotional world, be more or less adequate to his artistic taste, his peculiar aesthetic of the national needs. But as far as Islam was able to subordinate art to its social, religious and philosophical and aesthetic principles?It has the aesthetic concept of Islam in general and the universal artistic life of Muslim nations?

The aesthetic originality of the artistic culture of "Muslim" peoples

In the analysis of the historical interaction of art and Islam very clearly visible general historical pattern of development of the spiritual, and in particular art and culture.In this process continuously collide interact vzaimousvaivayutsya two streams: people's social and mythological date.

In this case, the uniqueness of Muslim dogma and practice, its rigidity and rigor have led to the fact that Islam was not able to fully capture the mythological folk artistic consciousness, to teach him their traits not only in the early stages, but throughout its existence. "Without a particularly strong shocks, - says academician I. Yu. Krachkovsky - poetry has survived the era of Muhammad and the first caliphs." But the overall impact of Islam in the true art is characterized, in our opinion, AV Sagadeev: "Religion ... Islam has had a certain influence on the development of art ... the Middle East nations, but his role here was far from decisive."

Indeed, we see how over the centuries of domination of Islam in the Arabian art culture preserved a kind of ancient Arabic poetry as KASIDA going from pre-Islamic Bedouin poetry. The peculiarity of this kind of poetic versification is that KASIDA necessarily includes: 1) the glorification of the hero, 2) a description of animals and nature, 3) the feeling of love to leave his native land.

However, in the poetry of the Muslim peoples there is a whole direction associated with the chanting of the wines coming from the most ancient traditions Parseeism or zaroastrizma - the religion of the ancient Persians.As "Avesta" states that intoxication "zlatotsvetnoy haoma" give "comprehensive knowledge".

Herodotus in his "History" confirms this: "... the wine they (. Persians - EY) usually discuss the most important issues. The decision taken at this meeting, the next day the owner of the house, where they are still RAE offers (for approval) guests already sober. If they approve it in a sober decision, then perform. Conversely, the decision taken sober, to discuss when he was drunk. "

This Persian tradition is transformed into the Arab pre-Islamic and early Islamic poetry in the whole poetic trend that glorifies not only the intoxication process, but also wines, gives rules and recommendations how to drink wine (in particular, she recommends drinking three bowls in the company of three human).Moreover, the poets of this trend argue that only the Muslim nations are able to understand the aesthetic value of the wine."The enemy, of course, does not know how to drink wine ... not with impunity intoxication and for the Jews ..." - writes in the Arabic poet X.Al-Ahatal.

In XI in.wonderful Persian-Tajik poet Omar Khayyam continue this tradition, giving the wine theme not only hedonistic, cheerful, but also anti-religious character:

My hand to keep a jug of wine - delight;

Sacred scrolls to her touch and do not have;

I was soaked with wine;not me prude dry,

Not me, but here's a dangerous flames of hell

And further:

Throw pray, bring us wine, mantis,

We split its good reputation on the floor.

You're still the fate of the hem did not seize,

Take hold of the hem of even a beauty!

As is known, Islam from its inception has introduced a strict ban on wine;devout Muslim should not drink wine, so as not to defile himself. [2]

A somewhat different attitude to blame Sufism (Islamic mysticism). Sufism wine is a means to ecstasy, which dissolves the personality, alienated from all earthly things, and merging with the absolute divine. But no orthodox Islam or Sufism could not shake the hedonistic attitude to wine in Muslim nations, and if the practice of real life, Islam and some results have been achieved (albeit very doubtful), the artistic and poetic, imaginative thinking wine always people It remained vital and aesthetically significant.

Even more external proved the impact of Islam on the art of Central Asia. "... Medieval East has created a ... his new art in different countries, full of local color.For example, in Central Asia, it was not an "Arab" and "Islamic" art and extremely diverse in its manifestations of feudal art trade and craft towns IX-XIII centuries.The basis of his nationality lying always is the greatest cultural factor of progress. "

This fact was largely due to the fact that Islam in Central Asia came only in the VIII., When her people, having undergone the influence of Buddhism, Parseeism, and even Christianity, have developed in the field of artistic thinking of a kind of "immunity", have created their specific national and unique principles of artistic creation. This is most clearly manifested in the funeral cult ossuaries dozoroastriyskih religious beliefs on the territory of Khorezm. "... The origins ossuarnogo rite not to be found in the Zoroastrian dogma, and in the earlier beliefs of the Iranian peoples, who sometimes prefer to call Mazdaism, and perhaps even in the primitive beliefs that preceded them." Already here ossuary (bone vault deceased) becomes a work of art - a sculpture or decorative.

The negative attitude to the images, which gave a start later in the pursuit of fine arts, was born with the Koran, evolved, concretized with the development of Islamic orthodoxy.It is a logical consequence of the whole philosophy of this religion - specific bogoponimaniya and human concepts dovedshy polarization of the spiritual and the material, the heavenly and the earthly to the extreme.

This has had a huge impact on the visual trends in art, as "the art of the Middle East nations in the era of feudalism was developed particular, imbued with the beginning of the decorative imagery ...", which has become dominant, determined the originality and uniqueness of the art of these peoples.

That is why even the works of fine art itself is marked "kind and bright decorative, meets aesthetic demands ... time." But at the same time "in the domination of Islam depiction in art is no less heretical than rationalism in philosophy: it violated the standards set by the religion ..." and thereby show the strength and persistence of the artistic culture of the people of "Muslim" world.

Even Muslim Sufism in the conditions of Central Asia gained other features, rather than the Middle East or "Muslim West." Here he enriched the Buddhist traditions and philosophical ideas of Neo-Platonism, lost the extreme asceticism and immensely ecstatic that were typical for him in the event. "... Sufism, coming in Central Asia in contact with Buddhism - says leading researcher J. Goldtsier Islam - as learned from this circle of ideas of thought and purpose, which is to explain the rudiments of Sufism novoplatonovskie are insufficient. The disappearance of the personality, its dissolution into nothingness back to the idea of ​​nirvana. " All this led to the fact that the impact of Islam and on the artistic life of the peoples of Central Asia has been more relaxed and mediated by the culture,which has developed here at the time of the spread of Islam.

But not everywhere embraced Islam spread only socio-current layer;in certain historical conditions collision occurred and interpenetration opposite cultures;their merger gave rise to unexpected and unique spiritual phenomena, which have become a kind of synthesis of the culture of Aboriginal and newcomers.

As it happened, for example, the culture of medieval southern Spain, which after the invasion of her in the VIII century the Muslims there is a so-called Moorish art, combining the features of the culture of the Spanish Visigoths, early Christianity, and who is at this time in the full force of Islam. It is an art born in medieval Andalusia, it has generated stable features Moorish-style art, especially evident in the architecture, music (music of Granada), arts and crafts (Moorish arabesque) and poetry (zazhdal). It was called the Spanish-Moorish art, the style of which is manifested most fully in the great Mosque of Cordoba.

Interpenetration of European and Muslim started to impact not only on art, but on the whole spiritual life of medieval Andalusia, on the whole complexion of residents of Muslim Spain. At the end of the domination of Islam in Spain, Spanish Muslim XI century - how boldly claims X. Perez - appears to us in his poetry as a curious mix of ancient and modern, classical and romantic, sensual him word, pagan and Christian.

Purely Arab culture and language were very close to the native Spaniard. One of the most prominent fighters against Islam in the IX century. kordovets Alvaro in his book «Indiculus luminosus» wrote: "My fellow believers love to read poems and various works of the Arabs: they study the writings of theologians, not in order to refute them, and to develop a proper and refined Arabic pronunciation ... All young Christians who They stand out for their talent, know only Arabic and Arabic literature, they read and study with the greatest zeal Arabic books; they make it a lot of money and huge libraries everywhere say that this literature is delicious ... What grief! Christians have forgotten even their language of religion, and among us in a thousand people you will hardly find even one who could write a passable Latin letter to a friend.If you need to write in Arabic, you will find many people speak freely in this language with the greatest grace, and you will see that they write poems, which may be preferred in terms of art verses of the Arabs themselves. "

Moreover, even in the Spanish theology and philosophy appeared the direction in which the intricately joined Christian and Muslim ideas. So there is a "Christian Sufism" Raymunda Lulliya, and even in the "Divine Comedy," Dante's Italian scientists discover some elements of Islamic eschatology.

It is a long and mutual interpenetration led to this historical incident, which seem even impossible.Thus, the largest modern expert on the history of Muslim Spain E. Levi-Provencal writes: "The Church of the bowl, crosses and royal crowns of Castile, magnificent vestments, until recently, kept many Spanish sacristy, often have ornaments, related Spanish-Moorish art and sometimes arabesque, with careful consideration ofwhere you can find verses from the Koran, warped next generation of masters who did not understand their content. "

Quran verses in the Catholic church vestments and crowns Christian kings!Is this not evidence of the complex relationships of warring religions and churches ?!Such historical incidents occurred in other countries in which Islam came.

So, in Damascus, according to Academician VV Bartold, there is a mosque in the southern gate which remained Greek inscription: "Thy kingdom, Christ is a kingdom for all ages, and thy dominion (will be) in any generation," as before this place was a Christian church. In Syria, in Himsome it was a great Christian cathedral, which captured Muslims. However, "according to some, in the X century, the building remained a church in another part of Muslim worship took place." Equally striking example of such an unnatural compound cultures is fate cathedral Sophia in Istanbul, Muslims who then was turned into a comfortable Istanbul mosque.

Thus, not only at the level of national-mythological consciousness, but even at the level of socio-current layer in the medieval Moorish Spain, and other Muslim countries, there are peculiar and unique artistic phenomenon in which intertwined Muslim and Christian culture.

In turn, Islam has had a profound impact on the Iranian poetry, as an Iranian literary language began to emerge during the implementation of Islam and he was subject to its influence, even more than the actual Arabic literary language and poetry, which, as mentioned above, have emerged and thoroughly develop into a pre-Islamic period.

However, and here the pre-Islamic forms of poetry proved to be very stable and passed on from generation to generation.

For example, the Iranian-Persian form of poetry "aruz" has acquired even the nature of the canon of poetry which Islam could not overcome. "The doctrine of Aruzi, and with it the teachings of rhyme and poetic figures - wrote Academician AE Bertels - ... very early acquired its final shape, became a canon, for many centuries is repeated by various authors. The basic rules of verse memorized along with the grammar of a child, and no one thought about the possibility to go beyond them, as it was considered illiteracy. People's poetic canon aruz proved more resilient than the religious and aesthetic canons of Islam, because it combines robust structure and deep poetic thought, rising at the time of the mythological consciousness. Moreover, the structure is so dynamic aruz, its elements are so integrally mergedit is not even very clear semantic information verse Aruzi can be retrieved through its rhythm. "If the meaning of any verse line ... - writes AE Bertels - is not entirely clear at first reading, chanting helps to arrange ezāfe and vocalisation.

Knowledge of the rules of rhyme also helps to establish the text and figures of poetic knowledge contributes to understanding the most complex images contained in verse. "

Precisely because this is perhaps one of the most unique forms of poetry can not be assimilated by the Islamic dogma, and she in many respects, as well as Arab kasida, assimilated and expressed the Muslim aesthetic presentation in its form.More broadly, the Persian culturehad a tremendous impact on the entire Muslim world."Figures of Persian origin - wrote Academician VV Bartold, - ... were the main representatives of the Muslim nationhood and culture at a time when the only literary language of the Muslim world remained Arab."

And finally, a deep decorative flair and a sense of rhythm, characteristic of the Iranian art of thinking, were also in tune with Muslim theology and rituals contributed to the interpenetration of cultures.

Thus, in different regions, in different historical time there was interaction and mutual influence of Islam and the national cultures of the peoples subjected to its influence. Yet even where Islam was approaching the depths of the mythological-artistic consciousness, he could not erase, to assimilate something unique and unrepeatable that was characteristic of the cultures of these peoples. Islam has even less influence on art (and popular and professional) than Buddhism or Christianity, as its nonanthropomorphic, strict prohibitions to represent all living things inevitably faced with the fundamental principle of art that is impossible as a form of social consciousness without regard to the person. But art was still necessary to Islam. From the clash of these two opposite inherently spiritual phenomena arose somethingwhich confirmed the need for greater vitality and aesthetic principle, and with the illusory nature and social constraints of religious consciousness.

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